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Science Tift

an alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait alleles
building block of protein amino acids
blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart arteries
consists of a bone with a rounded end that fits into a cuplike cavity on another bone; shoulder and hip ball and socket
elastic, muscular organ that holds urine until it leaves the body through the urethra bladder
microscopic blood vessels that connect arteries and veins; diffuse waste and nutrients out and into cells capillaries
nutrient that usually is the body's main source of energy carbohydrates
heart muscles cardiac muscles
cartilage = thick, smooth, flexible, and slippery tissue layer that covers the ends of bones, make movement easier by reducing friction, absorbs shocks
cellular respiration = oxygen delivered to the cells is used to release energy from glucose
chemical digestion = occurs when enzymes and other chemicals break down large food molecules into smaller ones
compact bone = strong layer of bone directly under the periosteum
coronary circulation = flow of blood to and from the tissues of the heart
essential amino acids = eight amino acids that cannot be made in your body's cells. they have to be supplied by the foods you eat
fats = nutrient that stores energy, cushions organs, and helps the body absorb vitamins
genetics = section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instruction making specific proteins
genotype = the genetic make-up of an organism
gliding joints one part of a bone slides over another bone---back and forth motion; wrist, ankles, and between vertebrae
heredity = the passing of traits from parent to offspring
heterozygous = describes an organism with two different allels for a trait
hinge joint = back and forth movement; elbows knees, and fingers
homozygous = describes an organism with two alleles that are the same for a trait
immovable joint =joints that do not move, skull
involuntary = you cannot control, it happens automatically like your heart beating.
kidneys = bean shaped urinary system organ that is made up of about one million nephrons and filters blood, producing urine
marrow =located in the cavities of spongy bone; yellow is made of fat and red produces red blood cells
mechanical digestion = breakdown of food through chewing, mixing, and churning
melanin pigment = produced by the epidermis that protects skin from sun damage and gives skin and eyes their color
minerals = inorganic nutrient that regulates many chemical reactions in the body
nephrons = tiny filtering unit of the kidney
nutrients = substances in foods that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair
periosteum = tough tight fitting membrane that covers a bone's surface and contains blood vessels that transport nutrients into the bone
peristalsis = waves of muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract
phenotype = outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of its genotype
pivet joint = rotates; arm and leg
plasma = liquid part of blood, made mostly of water , in which oxygen, nutrients, and mineral are dissolved
platelets = irregular shaped cell fragment that helps clot blood and releases chemicals, thqat help form fibrin
probability = possible outcomes
proteins = large molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur and is made up of amino acids; used for growth, and replacement and repair of cells
pulmonary circulation = flow of blood through the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
skeletal muscles = move bones
systemic circulation = largest part of the circulatory system, in which oxygen-rich blood flows to all the organs and body tissues, except the heart and lungs, and oxygen-poor blood is returned to the heart
ureters = tube that carries urine from each kidney to the bladder
urethra = tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
veins = blood vessel that carries blood to the heart
vitamins = water-soluble or fat-soluble organic nutrient needed in small quantities for growth, for preventing some diseases, and regulating body functions.
voluntary = can be moved by consciously control...you can make it move