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68wm6 p2 Car Ped Neu

Nursing Care for Pediatric Neurological Conditions

What are the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord Meninges
What is the most common infection of the CNS? Meningitis
Majority of meningitis cases occur in who? children between 1 month and 5 years
Menengitis may be preceded by what? May be preceded by a URI and several days of GI distress
S/Sx of meningits: *Severe Headache *Delirium *Irritability *Restlessness *High pitch cry in infants *Convulsions *Coma *Opisthotonos (involuntary arching of the back due to muscle contractions) *Petechiae
How is meningitis Diagnosed? Lumbar puncture "spinal tap“, Gram stain and culture of CSF
What is encephalitis? Inflammation of the brain
What causes encephalitis? *Togaviruses and herpes virus type 1 and 2 *Following URI *Rubella or rubeola *Lead poisoning *Bacteria, spirochetes and fungi
What is Reye's Syndrome? An acute non-inflammatory encephalopathy and hepatopathy, with no reasonable explanation for the cerebral and hepatic abnormalities
Use of what drug is associated with reyes syndrome? Aspirin
What illnesses is Reyes Syndrome usually associated with? with a viral illness which may be quite mild (flu, chickenpox)
Stage I Reye's Syndrome S/Sx: *Vomiting *Lethargy *Drowsiness *Liver dysfunction *Follows commands *Brisk papillary reaction
Stage II Reye's Syndrome S/Sx: *Disorientation *Combative *Delirium *Hyperventilation *Hyperactive reflexes *Appropriate response to pain *Liver dysfunction *Sluggish pupillary response
Stage III Reye's Syndrome S/Sx: *Obtunded (Depressed LoC, lower mental facility) *Coma *Hyperventilation *Decorticate rigidity
Stage IV Reye's Syndrome S/Sx: *Deepening coma *Decerebrate rigidity *Loss of oculo-cephalic reflexes *Large and fixed pupils *Minimal liver dysfunction
Stage V Reye's Syndrome S/Sx: *Seizures *Loss of deep tendon reflexes *Respiratory arrest *Flaccidity *No evidence of liver dysfunction
What drug should not be given to a child to treat symptoms associated with chickenpox? Aspirin
What should be monitored when caring for a child with Reye's syndrome? Respirations, neuro status, ICP, vital signs and I & O.
What neonate/children are most at risk for developing sepsis? Neutropenic, immature WBCs, immunocompromised or in intensive care unit.
How long are antibiotics administered if PT is positive for sepsis? 7 - 10 days
Whata re the three types of partial seizures? *Simple partial seizures *Complex partial seizures *Simple or complex seizures secondarily generalized
Primary drugs for partial seizures and/or tonic clonic seizures: *Carbamazepine (Tegretol) *Phenytoin (Dilantin) *Valproic Acid (Depakote)
Primary drugs for absence seizures: *Ethosuzimide (Zarontin) *Valproic Acid (Depakote)
When is therapy for seizures gradually discontinued? Once the child is free for 2 years with a normal EEG
What is Status Epilepticus? *Continuous seizure that lasts more than 30 minutes *A series of seizures where the child does not regain a premorbid level of consciousness *A MEDICAL EMERGENCY
What are some possible causes of seizures? *Birth injury *Epilepsy *Infection *Fever *Dehydration *Hypoglycemia *Anesthetics *Drugs and poisons.
Created by: Shanejqb