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soc real world ch 6

Sociology The Real World Stein Chapter 6

QuestionAnswer
A collection of people who share a physical location but do not have lasting social relations. aggregate
"Normlessness"; term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change. anomie
The legitimate, noncoercive exercise of power. authority
A type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, written rules, impersonality, and formal written communication. bureaucracy
Authority based in the perception of remarkable personal qualities in a leader. charismatic authority
Power that is backed by the threat of force. coercive power
The mildest type of conformity, undertaken to gain rewards or avoid punishments. compliance
A temporary, public gathering of individuals who share a common focus; members might interact but do not identify with each other and will not remain in contact. crowd
A two-person social group. dyad
Social groups whose interactions are mediated through information technologies, particularly the internet; also called virtual communities. electronic or virtual communities
Leadership concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group. expressive leadership
A collection of people who share some attribute, identify with one another, and interact with each other. group
The sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong. group cohesion
The patterns of interaction between groups and individuals. group dynamics
In very cohesive groups, the tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members, creating a demand for unanimous agreement. groupthink
A type of conformity stronger than compliance and weaker than internalization, caused by a desire to establish or maintain a relationship with a person or a group. identification
A group that one identifies with and feels loyalty toward. in-group
Power that is supported by persuasion. influential power
Leadership that is task or goal oriented. instrumental leadership
The strongest type of conformity, occurring when an individual adopts the beliefs or actions of a group and makes them her own. internalization
Authority based in laws, rules, and procedures, not in the heredity or personality of any individual leader. legal-rational authority
George Ritzer's term describing the spread of bureaucratic rationalization and the accompanying increases in efficiency and dehumanization. McDonaldization
Any group an individual feels opposition, rivalry, or hostility toward. out-group
The ability to control the actions of others. power
Behaviors approved of by a particular social group. prescriptions
The people who are most important to our sense of self; members' relationships are typically characterized by face-to-face interaction, high levels of cooperation, and intense feelings of belonging. primary groups
Behaviors a particular social group wants its members to avoid. proscriptions
The application of economic logic to human activity; the use of formal rules and regulations in order to maximize efficiency without consideration of subjective or individual concerns. rationalization
A group that provides a standard of comparison against which we evaluate ourselves. reference group
Larger and less intimate than primary groups; members' relationships are usually organized around a specific goal and are often temporary. secondary groups
A theory of group formation and maintenance that stresses the need of individual members to feel a sense of belonging. social identity theory
The influence of one's fellow group members on individual attitudes and behaviors. social influence
The phenomenon in which as more individuals are added to a task, each individual contributes a little less; a source of inefficacy when working in teams. social loafing
The web of direct and indirect ties connecting an individual to other people who may also affect her. social network
Connections between individuals. social ties
Authority based in custom, birthright, or divine right. traditional authority
A three-person social group. Triad
A larger and more impersonal group that is usually organized around a specific goal and is often temporary is called a/an: Secondary group
Power that is backed by the threat of force is called: Coercive power
What is the strongest type of conformity? internalization
Generally, as the size of a social group increases _________ also increase. Stability and regulations
The tendency to enforce a high degree of conformity among members that creates a demand for unanimous agreement is called: Groupthink
What is one of the characteristics of bureaucracies according to Max Weber? Specialization
A monarchy would be an example of: Traditional authority
You and your family, friends, peers, colleagues, teachers, and co-workers constitute a: Social network
According to the text, what are the two major sources of inefficiency in the group process? organization and social loafing
A group that one identifies with and feels loyalty toward is called a/an: In-group
What would be considered an example of a primary group? Your group of close friends
Membership in secondary groups usually does not carry the same potential for emotional satisfaction that primary-group membership does. t/f True
The CEO who only cares about profits, regardless of the employees personal well being or morale, is using: Instrumental leadership
What would probably be considered an out-group by your city police force? A motorcycle gang
The sense of solidarity or loyalty that individuals feel toward a group to which they belong is called: Group cohesion
Which group might be considered a reference group for a first-year sociology major? Senior sociology major
A collection of people who share a physical location but do not have lasting social relations is called a/an: Aggregate
An employee who adheres to a dress code at work even though she wishes she didn't have to is an example of conformity due to: Compliance
The patterns of interaction between groups and individuals is called: Group dynamics
What The replacement of people with automated check-in machines at airports.is an example of what Ritzer calls the McDonaldization of society? The replacement of people with automated check-in machines at airports.
What is Durkheim's term for a state of normlessness? Anomie
Leadership concerned with maintaining emotional and relational harmony within the group is called: Expressive leadership
Created by: hkrawietz