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soc real world ch 4

Sociology The Real World Stein Chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
The group composed of everyone involved in the creation, distribution, and consumption of any cultural product. art world
A group within society that openly rejects and/or actively opposes society's values and norms. counterculture
The dissemination of beliefs and practices from one group to another. cultural diffusion
Cultural influence caused by willingly adopting another culture's products; also the imposition of one culture's beliefs, practices, and artifacts on another culture through such consumer products and mass media. cultural imperialism
The process by which cultures that were once distinct become increasingly similar. cultural leveling
The principle of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging or evaluating according to one's own culture. cultural relativism
The entire way of life of a group of people (including both material and symbolic elements) that acts as a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next. culture
Clashes within mainstream society over the values and norms that should be upheld. culture wars
The values, norms, and practices of the group within society that is most powerful (in terms of wealth, prestige, status, influence, etc.). dominant culture
The principle of using one's own culture as a means or standard by which to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than one's own are abnormal. ethnocentrism
A loosely enforced norm involving common customs, practices, or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance. folkway
The ways in which people use their bodies to communicate without words; actions that have symbolic meaning. gestures
Term developed by Antonio Gramsci to describe the cultural aspects of social control whereby the ideas of the dominant social group are accepted by all of society. hegemony
Those forms of cultural expression usually associated with the elite or dominant classes. high culture
The norms, values, and patterns of behavior that members of a society believe should be observed in principle. ideal culture
A group of people dedicated to the consumption and interpretation of a particular cultural product and who create a collective, social meaning for the product. interpretive community
A system of communication using vocal sounds, gestures, or written symbols; the basis of symbolic culture and the primary means through which we communicate with one another and perpetuate our culture. language
A common type of formally defined norm providing an explicit statement about what is permissible and what is illegal in a given society. law
The objects associated with a cultural group, such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings, and artwork; any physical object which we give social meaning. material culture
A norm that carries great moral significance, is closely related to the core values of a cultural group, and often involves severe repercussions for violators. more
A policy that values diverse racial, ethnic, national, and linguistic backgrounds and so encourages the retention of cultural differences within society rather than assimilation. multiculturalism
A rule or guideline regarding what kinds of behavior are acceptable and appropriate within a culture. norm
Having many possible meanings or interpretations. polysemy
Usually contrasted with the high culture of elite groups; forms of cultural expression usually associated with the masses, consumer goods, and commercial products. popular culture
The norms, values, and patterns of behavior that actually exist within a society (which may or may not correspond to the society's ideals). real culture
Positive or negative reactions to the ways that people follow or disobey norms, including rewards for conformity and punishments for norm violations. sanction
A symbol that stands for or conveys an idea. sign
The formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and thus increase social cohesion. social control
The idea that language structures thought and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
A group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms, and lifestyle. subculture
The ideas associated with a cultural group, including ways of thinking (beliefs, values, and assumptions) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions, and communication). symbolic culture
A norm ingrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust, horror, or revulsion. taboo
Areas of culture that share similar aesthetics and standards of taste. taste cultures
Groups of people who share similar artistic, literary, media, recreational, and intellectual interests. taste publics
A theory of social change that assumes changes in technology drive changes in society, rather than vice versa. technological determinism
Material artifacts and the knowledge and techniques required to use them. technology
Ideas about what is desirable or contemptible and right or wrong in a particular group. They articulate the essence of everything that a cultural group cherishes and honors. Values
Which of the following is true concerning norms? a)Norms are similar in every culture, time period, and situation. b)Norms are always written down in official laws. c)Norms often develop directly out of values. c)Norms often develop directly out of values.
The imposition of one culture’s beliefs, practices, and artifacts on another culture through mass media and consumer products is called: Cultural imperialism
A group within society that is differentiated by its distinctive values, norms, and lifestyle is a: Subculture
An opera house would probably be considered an aspect of: High culture
A policy that values diverse racial, ethnic, national, and linguistic backgrounds and encourages the retention of cultural differences within society is called: Multiculturalism
Which of the following would be considered a counterculture? a)Irish-Americans b)the Black Panthers c)police officers d)fans of the Cleveland Browns Black panthers
Which of the following is the correct order of norms in terms of their ingrained significance (with the most significant starting on the left)? a)mores – folkways – taboo b)taboo – mores – folkways c)mores – taboo – folkways d)taboo – folkways – mores b)taboo – mores – folkways
Cultural wars are frequently played out: In the media
The formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and thus increase social cohesion are referred to as: Social control
Which of the following is an example of a positive sanction? a) A child being put into time-out. b)A smile. c)A speeding ticket. d)Being arrested. A smile
Cultural diffusion usually occurs in the direction from more developed to less developed nations. t/f True
The spread of McDonald’s restaurants throughout Asia is an example of: Cultural diffusion
The idea that language structures thought, and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language is called: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
A student who claims that another culture is really weird because of the food that the people of that culture eat is using: Ethnocentrism
The fact that The Simpsons can be enjoyed on a variety of levels, by children and adults, for its humor and political commentary demonstrates: Polysemy
The norms, values, and patterns of behavior that members of a society believe should be observed are called real culture. t/f False
The set of shared beliefs about what a group of people considers to be worthwhile or desirable in life is called: Values
When Marshall McLuhan asserted that “the medium is the message,” he was arguing that: the changing forms of media dispersion (e.g., TV, radio, the Internet) are as important for cultural change as the content of the media.
A student who tries to objectively analyze the food that the people of a different culture eat is using: Cultural relativism
Which of the following would be considered a part of symbolic culture? a)music b)military uniforms c)artwork d)language Language
A person wearing sandals while dressed in a suit is likely violating a: Folkway
The physical objects associated with a cultural group refer to: Material culture
According to the text, why is the spread of shows like Grey’s Anatomy or Friends to other countries potentially problematic? The value placed on sexual freedom in U.S. culture that is portrayed in these shows can antagonize cultures that place a higher value on moral restraint, which may result in anti-American sentiment.
Created by: hkrawietz