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68wm6 p2 Ped Sen Cog

Care for Pediatric patient with Sensory or Cognitive Impairment

How many infants are born with permanent hearing loss? Up to 2:1000
What is conductive hearing loss? Interference of transmission of sound to the middle ear
What is Perceptive or Nerve Deafness? Damage to the inner ear structures or the auditory nerve
What is Central Auditory Imperception? all hearing losses that does not demonstrate defects in the conductive or sensorineural structures
What si functional hearing loss? Hearing loss occurs without lesions or other explanations for central hearing loss
What defects cause hearing loss? Defect in sound transmission, damage to nerve pathways or a mixture of both
What is otitis media? Inflammation and fluid in the middle ear
What may be the causes of otitis media? RSV and H. influenzae, passive smoking increases risks.
What ages are otitis media common in, and in what gender is it more common? Ages 0-7, more commmon in boys
What are the most common bacterias involved in otitis media? *Streptococcus pneumoniae *H. Influenzae and Moraxella
In a child with otitis media, how will the tympanic membrane appear? bulging and red
S/Sx of otitis media: *Ear pain *Fever *Purulent discharge *Irritability and restlessness *Holding, rubbing, or pulling on affected ear
What can result from chronic otitis media? *Hearing loss *Tinnitus *Vertigo
What is the Tx of otitis media? *Spontaneous resolution *Antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Ceftriaxone) *Myringotomy *PE tubes if there are recurrent episodes of long duration.
True or False: The method the child is fed can cause otitis media True. Feed sitting up to prevent OM
To inspect the ear canal in an older child, what is the proper method of pulling the pinna? Up and back
What is the visual acuity of a newborn? Around 20/400
When does a childs visual acuity reach 20/30 to 20/20? 2 - 3 years of age
For what age of children is the snellen letter chart most effective? 6 years or older
What visual acuity testing chart is useful for children who dont know the alphabet having the child point in the direction the letter is facing? Tumbling E
What visual acuity testing chart uses common figures/shapes to test vision? Allen card
How is visual acuity tested in newborns? by checking light perception
What is indicative of vision in newborns? The ability to fix on and follow a target is an indication of vision
What visual problems can be corrected by corrective lenses? *Myopia *Hyperopia *Amblyopia
What is myopia? Near-sightedness, the light rays are bent and falls short of the retina (focuses before retina)
What is hyperopia? Far-sightedness, the light rays are bent and focuses past the retina
What is emmetropia? "normal" bend of light so the light focus right on the retina
What is Strabismus? Eye muscles do not coordinate (cross eye). Can affect either one or both eyes and results in two images instead of one being received by the brain
What are common S/Sx of strabismus? *Squinting *Closing one eye *Tilting head *Difficulty focusing
What is Amblyopia? “lazy eye” unclear image in effected eye – causing double vision
True or False: The goal of medical interventions of one with strabismus is to return the eyes to normal functioning and position False. There is no treatment that will perfectly align the eyes. The goal therefore is to realign them as close to normal as possible.
What is legal blindness? Visual acuity of 20/200 or less and a visual field of 20 degrees or less
What are the most common types of visual disorders in children? Refractive errors
What is a Retinoblastoma? a rare, cancerous tumor of the retina. One or both eyes may be affected
S/Sx of retinoblastoma: *Cat’s eye reflex *Strabismus *Red, painful eye *Pupil may appear white or have white spots *A glow in affected eye is often seen in photographs
What is enucleation? Surgical removal of the eye
How many children does autism occur in, and in which gender is it more likely to develope? 1 in 500, males
What is the hallmark symptom of autism? Failure to make eye contact
What are the three components in diagnosing cognitive impairment? *Intellectual functioning with an IQ of 70 or less *Impairment in at least 2 of 10 different skills *Younger than 18 years old when diagnosed
What are the classifications of cognitive impairment? *Educable mentally retarded (mild) *Trainable mentally retarded (moderate)
When is a Dx of cognitive impairment made? After developmental progress is delayed
What are the causes of cognitive impairment? *Genetic *Biochemical *Infectious *Other unknown causes
What is the most common chromosomal abnormality and how many births does it occur in? Down Syndrome, 1:800 - 1:1000 births
95% of children with down syndrome have what? An extra chromosome 21
What physical problems are associated with down syndrome? *Congenital heart malformations *Respiratory infections *Thyroid dysfunction
What can be done to lessen the chances of respiratory infection in children with down syndrome? *Using bulb syringe *Rinse mouth after feedings *Increasing fluid intake *Use a cool-mist vaporizer
How does Fragile X Syndrome appear in adult men? *Long faces with prominent jaw *Large protruding ears *Large testes
What medication is used to control outbursts in children with Fragile X Syndrome? Seratonin agents
What medications are used to improve attention span in children with Fragile X Syndrome? CNS stimulants such as clonidine
Created by: Shanejqb