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Trevor's (Pugh) EXAM

Ch 3,4,5 8 & 9 Exam review study guide part one. MADE BY TREVOR

What is an aquatic environment that contains organisms that thrive in water with various salt concentrations? Estuaries
Living things are called what? biotic
Nonliving things are called what? abiotic
From smallest group to largest group list the organization used in ecology. population -> community -> ecosystem ->biosphere
All of the same species of organisms living in the same place at the same time is called? population
All of the populations as a group living in the same area is called? communities
All abiotic and biotic parts of an area together is called a? ecosystem
What is a habitat? The location of the organisms living area including abiotic and biotic factors of an ecosystem.
What is a niche? The full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and how it used those conditions
In this food chain what is the producer? Grass -> Horse -> bear Grass
In this food chain what is the primary consumer? Grass -> rabbit -> Fox Rabbit
If a bush full of berries contains 1000 kcals of energy how much energy is available to the bear who is the primary consumer 100 (units of 10)
A food web is? interconnect food chains found in an ecosystem
An organism that eats only producers is called a? Herbivore
An organism that eats only consumers is called a? carnivore
An organism that eats both consumers and producers? (US) omnivores
Scavengers are also called what? detritovores
Organisms that feed on the dead bodies of dead organisms is called what? Scavengers
Organisms such as fungi that feed on decaying matter and turn it back into soil are called decomposers
Detrirovores and decomposers cannot be in the _________ Tropic level? 1st
In mutualism how many organisms are damaged or hurt? None they both benefit!
In Commensalism one organism ____________ and the other _____________ One is not affected and the other benefits from the relationship
In parasitism how many organisms benefit? one
What general type of organism plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle by turning nitrogen into a form usable by plants? Bacteria
The process of turning nitrogen into a form that plants can use is called? Nitrogen fixation
Animals get their nitrogen by doing what? eating plants
The main process (two) of the oxygen-carbon cycle are what? photosynthesis, and respiration
What is an example of density-independent factor? Weather, climate, natural disasters
What is an example of density-dependent factor Predation, competition
An energy pyramid shows what? relative amount of energy in every tropic level.
A numbers pyramid shows what? Shows the relative number of organisms at each tropic level.
A biomass pyramid shows what? grams of organic mater per unit area in each tropic level
An adaptation in which one organism loom or/and acts like another to avoid being eaten by a predator (predation) is called what? mimicry
What is the process that all plants get most of their energy from photosynthesis
photosynthesis is changing sunlight into chemical compounds or energy
The green pigment in plant cells used for photosynthesis is called what? chlorophyll
Photosynthesis occurs in what organelle? chloroplasts
Plants need what basic things (3) to change light into food Water, carbon-dioxide, light
When the plant undergo photosynthesis and produces a carbohydrate what is released into the air? oxygen
what is the formula and basic formula (words) for photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Carbon Water Energy Oxygen dioxide
Organisms that used the energy of sunlight to make their own food are called what? autotrophs
Autotrophs are also called what? Producers
Organisms that are not able to make the own food and must consume others are called what? heterotrophs
Heterotrophs are also called what? consumers
What are the two main stages of photosynthesis Light dependent reaction & light independent reaction - also know as Calvin cycle
Most animals and plants get their energy from the stored food called what? Glucose
The process of breaking down glucose, to release energy is called what? glycolysis
Cellular respiration occurs in what organelle? mitochondria
The equation for cellular respiration is what? 6O2 + C6H12O6 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ENERGY
The energy produced during cellular respiration is stored in what type of molecules? ATP
The end products of cellular respiration are carbon dioxide and water
What measures length? ruler
what measures mass? balance scale
what measures volume? graduated cylinder
Goggles protect your? eyes
You use a Petri dish to? Culture cells (grow them)
Erlenmeyer flask is used for? To measure and hold liquids
Watch glass is used for? To cover the beaker
test tubes hold, mix, and heat what? solids and liquids
Graduated cylinder is used for what? to measure volume of an object
5.1 Kilograms = how many grams 5100 Grams
1 gram equals how many milligrams? 1000
1 gram equals how many kilograms .001
What is the freezing point of water in Celsius? 0
What is the boiling point of water in Celsius? 100
Organic compounds always have what element? carbon
Inorganic compounds does not have what element carbon
Carbohydrates, lipids , nucleic acids and protein all are what? (starts with o) organic
What is the function of carbohydrates? Main source of energy for multi-celluar organisms, and also used for structural purposes.
What is the function of a lipid? To store energy (long term), waterproof membrane coverings, and some lipids can be steroids
What is the function of a nucleic acid? transmits and passes down genetic information in a cell
what is the function of a protein? controls cells properties and processes, fights diseases, transports, and also it builds muscle
What is the monomer of a carbohydrate? mono-saccharides
what is the monomer of a lipid? glycerol & Three fatty acid tail
what is the monomer of a protein? amino acid
what is the monomer of a nucleic acid? nucleotides
what is the most abundant compound in the human body? Carbon
What are the four most abundant compounds found in the human body? Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
What do plants store their sugar in? Starches
what do animals store their sugar in? glycogen
Most enzymes are what? Proteins
what is the process called where two molecules are joined together by splitting of a water molecule? dehydration synthesis
What are two ways humans are affecting the carbon cycle? Habitat destruction and burning fossil fuels.
What is an adaptation in which an organisms blends in with an environment to avoid being eaten? camouflage
The food produced by plants is called? glucose
____________ is the study of the living world. Biology
List the characteristics of living things. HINT: There are 8 They must be made up of cells, must reproduce, must be based on a universal genetic code, must grow and develop, must obtain and user materials & energy, must respond to environment & maintain it, as a group they must change over time
What is the order of the scientific method? (7) Problem, hypothesis, experiment, data, forming conclusions, share results repeat
What is an hypothesis? a proposed scientific explanation for a set of observations (educated guess)
What is a variable? The factors that are manipulated, changed or tested
What is the control? The variable with no changing conditions. Used to compare results of the variable
What is a theory? A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Qualitative is data that is not ______? measured
What do you call data that is measured? Quantitative
Length is measured in? meters
Mass is measured in? grams
Volume is measured in? liters
temperature is measured in? Celsius
Enzymes act as what inside the body? catalyst (speed up reactions)
Name of enzymes usually end in what? -ase
Name if sugars usually end in what? -ose
What is saturated fat? A type of fat that contains the most hydrogen bonds
What is the difference between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats? Mono. fats only have one carbon to carbon bond while poly fats have two carbon to carbon bonds
What is the process called where you split a large molecules into a smaller molecules by adding water? hydrolysis
What is the process in which amino acids are joined together to form proteins? dehydration synthesis
What is the bond called that joins sugar molecules together to form disaccharides or polysaccharides? dehydration synthesis
What is the process called where a polysaccharides is split into sugar molecule? Hydrolysis
What element to proteins and amino acids only contain? nitrogen
What are the two groups that never change in amino acids called? amino group and carboxyl group
Amino acids bonds are called what? peptide bonds
The chemical formula for a disaccharide is what? C12H22O11
What is the three main principles of the cell theory? All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic structure and function in living things. New cells are produced by existing cells.
a membrane that permits some substances to move through more easily than others is called what? selectivity permeable
What is the four levels of cell organization from smallest to greatest? cell, tissue, organ, organ system
Prokaryotes do not contain what A nuclei
eukaryotes have a.... nuclei
What is the two main compositions of the cytoskeleton? Micro-filaments, and microtubles
What is the function of a nuclear envelope? Protects, surrounds the nucleus and allows certain materials to move in and out.
What is the function of a nucleolus? It is the small middle part of the nucleus and is where the assembly of ribosomes begins
What is the function of a chromatin? Dna bound to protein and its main function is to hold dna.
What is the function of a chromosome? Threadlike structure that holds genetic information of the cell.
What is the function of a cell membrane? regulates what enters and exits the cell and provides support
What is the function of a cell wall? Provides protection and support for the cell
What is the function of a mitochondria? converts chemical energy stored in food compounds to energy ( the power house)
What is the function of a lysosome? Breaks down lipids carbohydrates and proteins into simpler molecules for the cell to use
What is the function of a ribosome? assembles proteins from instruction by the dna
What is the function of a smooth ER? contains enzymes, main function is to preform specialized task (detoxification)
What is the function of a rough ER? Synthesis proteins, ribosomes found on surface
What is the function of a Golgi apparatus? modify, package, sort proteins and other materials
What is the function of a vacuole? Store materials such as water and food
What is the function of a chloroplast? capture energy from the sunlight and convert to chemical energy
What is the function of a centriole? pulls spindle fibers to polls of the cells.
What organelle's are only in plants? Cell wall, and chloroplast
Materials move into and out of cells from higher concentration to a lower concentration in what process? Diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion
define osmosis the diffusion of water through a selectivity permeable membrane
define diffusion moving from a higher concentration to a lower concentration
define hypo-tonic below strength
define hyper-tonic above strength
What is the difference from passive transport to active transport? Passive requires no energy and follow from high to low, active requires energy and can go from low to high
What are the channels and pumps made of that help move objects during facilitated diffusion? Proteins
What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis? Endo- takes in materials Exoc- takes out materials
define facilitated diffusion allowing certain materials to move faster than others through channels in the membrane
When cells shrink do to water loss this is called what? (also what type of solution does this occur in?) plasmolysis - hyper-tonic
Bursting of cells due to excess of water is called what? (and what does this occur in) cytolysis - hypo-tonic
What is the pressure that builds up against the cell wall due to excess water moving into the cell turgor pressure
what type of solution is it when turgor pressure builds up against the cell wall? hypo-tonic
What are two examples of endocytosis? Phagocytosis, and pinocytosis
The unicellular organism Euglena uses what structure to move around? flagella
The unicellular organism paramecium uses what structure to move around? Cillea
What does cytosine bond with? Guanine
What does adenine bond with? thymine
What are the two process that dna is responsible for? Replication and protein synthesis
Dna replicates itself in what stage of inter-phase? S phase
What are nucleosomes made of? It is made of Dna wrapped around protein balls called histones.
What is a histone? Protein balls in the chromosomes
What is the process in which a molecules of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of mRNA Transcription
What is the decoding of mRNA into a polypeptide chain (a protein) translation
Dna is complementary so that one strand serves as a _________________ for a new strand during Dna replication (copying) template
What are the three parts of a nucleotide? (sugar) deoxyribose molecules, phosphate group, nitrogenous bases.
What bonds hold the three bases of nucleotides together? hydrogen
What two molecules make up the backbone of the DNA ladder? Deoxyribose (sugar) and phosphates
Watson and Crick (the makers of the dna model) said that dna is shaped like a _____________________ double helix, in which two strands are wound around each other
What is the function of ribosomal RNA? assembles the proteins on the ribosomes by providing enzymes
What is the function of Transfer Rna? Transfers each amino acid to the ribosomes (gets instructions from mRNA)
What is the function of Messengers Rna? carries out instructions or messages, to assemble proteins (from dna)
What is the difference between the DNA and RNA shape? Rna is single stranded and DNA is double stranded
What is a mutation? a mistake or change in the DNA sequence
The human body cell has how many chromosomes? 46
How many pairs of chromosomes does the human body cell have? 23
What are the stages that the cell goes through in inter-phase? G1 phase, S phase and, G2 phase
What happen in G1 phase? The cell growths and the cell synthesize proteins and organelles
What happens in S phase? chromosomes are replicated and the synthesis of dna takes place.
What happens in G2 phase? organelles and molecules for cells division are produced
what is the difference between chromatin, and chromosomes? chromosomes - are with grainy appearances in the cell nucleus when the cell is not dividing. chromatin - distinct bodies when dna becomes visible during prophase
What is the function of spindle fibers? structure that help sorts or separates chromosomes
What is the difference between how plant and animals cells divide during cytokinesis Animals cells are split by the membrane pinching inward and in plant cells a cell plate is formed that separates it into two cells.
In what type of cell does mitosis take place? Body cells (somatic cells)
What are the consequences of uncontrolled cell growth? Cancer
A mass of cancerous cells is called what? tumor
What happens in prophase? Chromosomes become visible because chromatin condense. Centrioles separate and move to opposite sides. Spindle fibers form and attach to chromosomes. Nucleolus disappears
What happens in metaphase? chromosomes line up at center of the cell, spindle fibers attach to chromosomes
What happens in anaphase? Sisters chromatin separate individual chromosomes are moved apart
what happens in telophase? chromosomes unwind, nuclear envelope reforms, nucleolus reappears in each daughter nucleus. Spindle fibers and centrioles disappear
what is the biome that has plants like cacti, nocturnal animals, sand soil, little precipitation? Desert
what is the biome that has animals with thick fur, short growing season & permafrost? tundra
what is the biome that has >200 cm rainfall per year, tree-dwelling animals & nutrient-poor soil? tropical rain forest
what is the biome that has deep layer of topsoil, burrowing animals (prairie doges) & grazing animals (bison), few trees? Temperate grassland
what is the biome that has 4 distinct season, mild climate, deciduous trees? temperate deciduous forest
what is the biome that has grazing animals like zebra, lion and giraffes? tropical savanna
what is the biome that has harsh winters, evergreen trees, elk & migratory birds? northern coniferous forest
what is the biome that has temps. ranging from 26C to 27C & precipitation thought the year? tropical rain forest
What are the two biomes with least amount of precipitation? Tundra and desert
Created by: bifd
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