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Psych Exam IV: text

schizophrenia a group of disorders characterized by severely impaired cognitive processes, personality disintegration, affective disturbances, and social withdrawal
DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia one month of: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech/incoherence, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, negative symptoms like flat affect or apathy; functioning has deteriorated; some signs have been present for six months
positive symptoms symptoms of schizophrenia that involve unusual thoughts or perceptions such as delusions, hallucinations, thought disorders, and bizarre behavior
delusion a false belief that is firmly and consistently held despite disconfirming evidence or logic
delusion of grandeur a person's belief that he or she is a famous or powerful person (from the present or past); may assume the identity of this person
delusion of control a person's belief that other people, animals, or objects are trying to influence or take control of him or her
delusions of thought broadcasting a belief that others can hear the individual's thoughts
delusions of persecution a person's belief that others are plotting against, mistreating, or even trying to kill him or her
delusions of reference a person's belief that he or she is always the center of attention or that all happenings revolve about himself or herself
thought withdrawal a person's belief that his or her thoughts are being removed from his or her mind
capgras's syndrome the belief in the existence of identical "doubles" who may coexist with or replace significant others or the patient
hallucinations sensory perceptions that are not directly attributable to environmental stimuli
loosening of associations in schizophrenia, continual shifting from topic to topic without any apparently logical or meaningful connection between thoughts
verbigerations compulsive repetitions of meaningless words and phrases
negative symptoms symptoms associated with an inability or decreased ability to initiate actions or speech, express emotions, or feel pleasure; includes avolition, alogia, and flat affect
avolition an inability to take action or become goal-oriented
alogia a lack of meaningful speech
flat affect little or no emotion in situations in which strong reactions are expected
primary symptoms symptoms that arise from the disease itself
secondary symptoms symptoms that may develop as a response to medication, institutionalization, or as a result of a mood disorder
cognitive symptoms symptoms that are associated with problems with attention, memory, and difficulty in developing a plan of action
paranoid schizophrenia most common; preoccupations with one or more delusions or hallucinations; no negative symptoms; best prognosis of the types
disorganized schizophrenia somewhat common but more in women; grossly disorganized speech and behavior; flat or grossly inappropriate affect; prognosis poor
catatonic schizophrenia two or more of the following: motoric immobility or stupor, excessive, purposeless motor activity, extreme negativism or physical resistance, peculiar voluntary movements, echolalia or echopraxia; rare in US
undifferentiated schizophrenia like EDNOS in that it does not meet criteria for any other type; relatively common
residual schizophrenia experienced at least one previous episode but now showing absence of prominent psychotic features with continuing evidence of two or more features; somewhat common
brief psychotic disorder lasts no longer than one month; emotional turmoil and psychotic symptoms; ultimate return to functioning
schizophreniform disorder lasts for more than one month but less than six months; emotional turmoil and vivid psychotic symptoms; possible return to earlier higher level of functioning
delusional disorder characterized by persistent, nonbizarre delusions that are not accompanied by other unusual or odd behaviors
shared psychotic disorder in which a person who has a close relationship with an individual with delusional or psychotic beliefs comes to share those beliefs
schizoaffective disorder characterized by a mood disorder and the presence of psychotic symptoms for at least two weeks in the absence of prominent mood symptoms
dopamine hypothesis the suggestion that schizophrenia may result from excess dopamine activity at certain synaptic sites
concordance rate the likelihood that both members of a twin pair will show the same characteristic
expressed emotion (EE) a negative communication pattern that is found among some relatives of individuals with schizophrenia and that is associated with higher relapse rates. High EE = less chance of total recovery
neuroleptics antipsychotic drugs that can help treat symptoms of schizophrenia but can also produce undesirable side effects such as symptoms that mimic neurological disorders
milieu therapy a program in which the hospital environment operates as a community and patients exercise a wide range of responsibility, helping to make decisions and to manage wards
cognitive disorder a disorder that affects thinking processes, memory, consciousness, and perception and that is caused by brain dysfunction
electroencephalograph (EEG) a neurological test that assesses brain damage by measuring the electrical activity of brain cells
computerized axial tomography (CT) a neurological test that assesses brain damage by means of x-rays and computer technology
cerebral bood flow measurement a technique for assessing brain damage in which the patient inhales radioactive gas and a gamma ray camera tracks the gas--and thus the flow of blood--as it moves throughout the brain
positron emission tomography (PET) a technique for assessing brain damage in which the patient is injected with radioactive glucose and the metabolism of the glucose in the brain is monitored
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a technique to assess brain functioning using a magnetic field and radio waves to produce pictures of the brain
dementia a syndrome characterized by memory impairment and cognitive disturbances such as aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or disturbances in planning or abstraction in thought processes
aphasia language disturbance
apraxia inability to carry out motor activities despite intact comprehension and motor function
agnosia failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function
delirium a syndrome characterized by disturbance of consciousness and changes in cognition, such as memory deficit, disorientation, and language and perceptual disturbances
amnestic disorders disorders characterized by memory impairment as manifested by the inability to learn new information and the inability to recall previously learned knowledge or past events
traumatic brain injury (TBI) a physical wound or injury to the brain
cerebrovascular accident a stroke; a sudden stoppage of blood flow to a portion of the brain, leading to a loss of brain function
cerebral infarction the death of brain tissue resulting from a decrease in the supply of blood serving that tissue
vascular dementia dementia characterized by uneven deterioration of intellectual abilities and resulting from a number of cerebral infarctions
Alzheimer's disease a dementia in which brain tissue atrophies, leading to marked deterioration of intellectual and emotional functioning
neurofibrillary tangles twisted masses of protein fibers inside nerve cells or neurons
senile plaques composed of parts of neurons surrounding a group of proteins called beta-amyloid deposits
Parkinson's disease progressively worsening disorder characterized by four primary symptoms: tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance or coordination)
encephalitis brain inflammation that is caused by a viral or bacterial infection and that produces symptoms of lethargy, drowsiness, fever, delirium, vomiting, and headaches
meningitis inflammation of the meninges, the membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord; can result in the localized destruction of brain tissue and seizures
Huntington's disease a rare, genetically transmitted degenerative disease characterized by involuntary twitching movements and eventual dementia
cerebral tumor a mass of abnormal tissue growing within the brain
epilepsy any disorder characterized by intermittent and brief periods of altered consciousness, often accompanied by seizures, and excessive electrical discharge from brain cells
pervasive developmental disorders disorders involving severe childhood impairment in areas such as social interaction and communication skills and the display of stereotyped interested and behaviors; autistic disorder, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, Asperger's syndrome
autistic disorder a severe childhood disorder characterized by qualitative impairment in social interaction and/or communication; restricted, stereotyped interest and activities; and delays or abnormal functioning in a major area before the age of three; more boys
PDDNOS .3% of children, does not fall into other PDD categories
Rett syndrome .1% of children, and almost entirely females, generally lifelong
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder .002% of children (extremely rare)
Asperger's Syndrome .1%, affects many more boys than girls
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder disorders of childhood and adolescence characterized by socially disruptive behaviors--either attentional problems or hyperactivity--that are present before age seven and persist for at least six months; 3-9% of school population; more males/poor kids
Oppositional Defiant Disorder a childhood disorder characterized by a pattern of negativistic, argumentatives, and hostile behavior in which the child often loses his or her temper, argues with adults, and defies or refuses adult requests; no serious rights violations
Conduct disorders disorders of childhood and adolescence characterized by a persistent pattern of antisocial behaviors that violate the rights of others; repetitive and persistent behaviors include bullying, setting fires, rape, cheating, fighting, throwing temper tantrums
enuresis an elimination disorder in which a child who is at least five years old voids urine during the day or night into his or her clothes or bed or on the floor at least twice weekly for at least three months
encopresis an elimination disorder in which a child who is at least four years old defecates in his or her clothes, on the floor, or other inappropriate places, at least once a month for three months
learning disorders disorders characterized by academic functioning that is substantially below that expected in terms of the person's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education
dyslexia difficulty with reading and reading comprehension; 4% of school-age children, more males than females
dyscalculia difficulty with computation, remembering math facts, concepts of time and money; 1% of school-age children
dysgraphia difficulty with handwriting, spelling, composition, grammar, punctuation; difficult to establish prevalence
mental retardation a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behaviors as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills; 1-3% prevalence with a 1.5:1 male:female ratio
down syndrome a condition produced by the presence of an extra chromosome (trisomy 21) and resulting in mental retardation and distinctive physical characteristics
amniocentesis a screening procedure in which a hollow needle is inserted through the pregnant woman's abdominal wall and amniotic fluid is withdrawn from the fetal sac; used during the fourteenth or fifteenth week of pregnancy to determine the presence of Down syndrome
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) a group of congenital physical and mental defects found in some children born to alcoholic mothers; symptoms include small body size and microcephaly, in which the brain is unusually small and mild retardation may occur
anorexia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by low body weight, an intense fear of becoming obese, and body image distortion
bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of the rapid consumption of large quantities of food, a sense of loss of control over eating combined with purging, and/or excessive exercise or fasting in an attempt to compensate for binges
binge eating disorder (BED) an eating disorder that involves the consumption of large amounts of food over a short period of time, an accompanying feeling of loss of control, and distress over the excess eating without regular inappropriate compensatory behavior
eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) a category for individuals with problematic eating patterns who do not fully meet the criteria for one of the eating disorders; currently includes BED
Tarasoff confidentiality breach on the part of the therapist; Supreme Court decision "the Duty to Warn"
M'Naghten Rule a cognitive test of legal insanity that inquires whether the accused knew right from wrong when he/she committed the crime
irresistible impulse test one test of sanity, which states that a defendant is not criminally responsible if he/she lacked the will power to control his/her behavior
Durham standard a test of legal insanity known as the products test--an accused person is not responsible if the unlawful act was the product of mental disease or defect
ALI Model Penal Code a test of legal insanity that combines both cognitive criteria (diminished capacity) and motivational criteria (specific intent); its purpose is to give jurors increased latitude in determining the sanity of the accused
Ford v. Wainwright the government cannot execute an incompetent convict
Rennie v. Klein people have a constitutional right to refuse treatment
Created by: 654230637
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