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Dr. Pruitt's Final Exam

social stratification a way of ranking large groups of people into a hierarchy according to the relative power, property, and prestige (all societies are stratified)
ideology -beliefs that justify social arrangements -all systems w/ stratification are upheld by ideologies
caste ascribed system of stratification in which a person's life long status is determined at birth
class -open system of stratification based up a person's wealth -boundaries are fluid = social mobility is possible
Weber's 3 components to social class 1.property = wealth 2.prestige = social regard or reputation 3.power = ability of individuals or groups to achieve goals, control events, and maintain influence over others despite opposition
Davis-Moore Thesis (Functionalist) -Note that there are positions in society that need to be filled but argue that some positions are more essential than others -argue that we offer property, power, and prestige proportionate to the skill requirements of postions
Melvin Tumin (Functionalist Critique) -stratification is disfunctional to many because it mostly affects the poor -stangulation of talent over time = competition becomes less open over time -functionalist view ignores the role of power in creating and maintaining stratification
Conflict View on Social Stratification -groups struggle over resources -power is used to dominate other groups and limit access to resources -groups with social power control the institutions of society
Critique of Conflict View 1. 2.Competition and unequal rewards may be necessary to motivate people
legitimacy generally held belief that a given political system is justified and valid -over time ideologies gain legitimacy
How do Elites Maintain Stratification 1.ideology 2.legitimacy 3.through the exercise of power and control of institutions
Social Class a large group of people who work closely to one another in wealth, power, and prestige -seperate people into different lifestyles -provides people with different chances and different ways of viewing the world
wealth consists of property (things you own) and income (salary) minus debt
prestige associated with respect or regard attached to social positions (ranking is consistent across countries and over time) -displayed through status symbols
Prestige Scores -Physicina: 86 -Supreme Court Judge: 85 -Attorney: 75 -College Professor: 74 -High School Teacher: 66 -Plumber: 45 -Barber: 36 -Bartender: 25
4 features of jobs with high occupational prestige 1.pay more 2.more education 3.more abstract thought 4.greater autonomy
% of All Wealth (2006) -Richest 1% (33.4%) -top 5% (57.5%) -bottom 50%(2.5%)
Class System -upper class = 37% of the population -middle class = 40% of the population -working class = 30% of the population -lower class = 27% of the population
Consequences of Social Class -family -education (private v. public school) -religion -politics -physical & mental health -working conditions
poverty line the official measure of poverty -est. by federal govn't -poor spend 1/5 of income on food -govn't figures out a low cost food budget and multiplies it by 3
What do activists argue? only 15%-20% of income is spent on food and that this number should be multiplied by 5 or 6 which would increase the number of poor people and society does not like to acknowledge poverty
Where is poverty higher? rural areas
% of Population living in Poverty -12% of U.S. population -24% of blacks live in poverty -24% of Mexican Americans live in poverty -11% of Cuban Americans
% of Children Living in Poverty -8% of Asian children -28% of Latino -35% of black
Daniel Patrickk Moinahand Argues that the increase in child poverty is due to the increase in births to unwed mothers
Why are women more apt to be more poor than men? 1.Sometimes due to divorce 2.Births to unwed mothers 3.Lower wages associated with jobs in which women are employed
culture of poverty the values and behaviors of the poor that make them different from other people
Oscar Lewis-Culture of Poverty -share certain values, attitudes, and beliefs that differ from the nonpoor -more permissive in rearing their children -more likely to seek immediate gratification instead of planning for the future -most poverty is short, lasting one year or less
Two Competing Theories for Why people are poor 1.feautres of society deny some people access to education, jobs, and/or job skill training; large scale economic changes 2.Characteristics of individuals such as dropping out or early child rearing contribute to poverty
race a group with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group
1993 American Association of Physical Anthropologists Called for the abolishment of race as a scientifically meaningful way to classify human beings because physical characteristics do not determine our behaviors, beliefs, or values
How do we use race and ethnicity? We use race and ethnicity to determine ingroups and outgroups
ethnicity how people identify with one another on the basis of common ancestry and culture
ethnic work How people construct their ethnicity (i.e. dress)
minority groups a group of people who may be subject to unequal and unfair treatment because of physical, cultural or other differences
dominant group any physically or culturally distinctive group that has the most economic and political power, the greatest privelages, and the higher social status
How can a group become a minority group? 1.The expansion of political boundaries (i.e. China taking over Tibet) 2.Through migration (voluntarily or forced)
discrimination unfair treatment directed against someone
individual discrimination negative treatment of one person by another
institutional discrimination discrimination woven into society (d'jour)
defacto discrimination that occurs in practice but is not legal
prejudice a neagtive prejudging; an irrational negative feeling on belief about a group based on presumed characteristics of that group
Prejudice Classifications 1.unprejudiced, nondiscriminators 2.unprejudiced, discriminators 3.prejudiced, nondiscriminators 4.prejudiced, discriminators
racism the belief that one racial group is superior to another
frustration and scapegoats (Dollard) prejudice is the result of economic frustration, and scapegoats become targets of blame
The Authoritatiran Personality (Adorne) Highly prejudiced people are insecure, conformist, submissive to superiors, have a deep respect for authority, bullying to inferiors, and they are disturbed by ambiguity in religious or sexual matters
genocide systematic annihilation of a race or ethnic group -victims are typically labeled the targeted group as less than fully human facilitates genocide (i.e.Rwanda, Sudan, Holocaust)
population transfer causing a minority group to relocate
indirect transfer dominant groups makes things so miserable for the minority, the minority has to leave
direct transfer when a minority group is forcibly relocated (i.e. Trail of Tears)
segregation formal seperation of racial or ethnic groups -1954 Brown v Board of Education = segregated schools were uncostitutional -1967 Loving v Virginia = determined that laws prohibiting interracial marriage was unconstitutional
assimilation process by which a minority group is absorbed into the mainstream
forced assimilation when a minority group is prohibited from using its own language, religion, or culture
permissive assimilation when minority groups adopt the dominant culture
multiculturalism permits and encourages racial and ethnic variation -groups maintain seperate identities, yet fully participate -also referred to as "pluralism" -Switzerland
Naturalization Act 1790 declared that only white immigrants could apply for citizenship
WASPs white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestants
White Ethnics white who are not Anglo-Saxon Protestant (i.e. Irish, Italian)
Latinos -largest minority group in U.S. -69% live in TX, CA, FL, NY -at odds with the African American population 1. economic competition 2.political representation -1/2 are unable to speak English w/o difficulty -12% of lations have graduated from college (2
African Americans -have made remarkable gains since the Civil Rights Movement but still lag in politics, economics, and education -18% of blacks have graduated from college (2007)
William Wilson -black sociologist at Harvard who wrote a book in the 1980s "The Declining Significance of Race" argues that social class has become more important in determining the life changes of blacks in the U.S.
underclass intercity residents who are largely socially and economically isolated from the larger society
Why do Asian Americans have a higher income than any other racial group? 1.48% of Asian American graduate from college 2.Strong families w/ close family ties 3.Assimilation into the mainstream (most likely to live in integrated neightborhoods + 2/5 of Asian Americans marry outside their race) -
What percent of whites graduate from college? 29%
Asian Americans -56% of Asian Americans live in the west while 21% of the general population lives in the west -children are more likely to be raised in a two parent family
Native Americans -2 million today -the "invisible" minority -between 1/3 and 1/2 live in CA, AZ, OK -54% live on reservations -fare worse than any other group in the U.S. -highest poverty rates, unemployment, suicide, and alcoholism -14% graduate from college
First minority-majority state California, 17 million nonwhites and 16 million whites
When did the United Nationa ban slavery? 1948
What is chattel slavery? People are bought and sold as commodities, sometimes multiple times. Often abducted from their homes, inherited, or given as gifts.
In what parts of the world does chattel slavery exist today? Middle East, Africa, Asia, and The Balkans
What groups were/are the top and the bottom of the Indian caste system, and what jobs were associated with each of these levels? -top: Brahmins (priest, scholars) -Kshatiyas(Kings and warriors) -vaishyas(merchants and farmers) -shudras(peasants, laborers, craftspeople) -Dalits = "untouchables" (cleaning streets)
When did India outlaw the caste system? 1949
How do people identify castes today? Through their surnames and socialize with and marry within their own castes
The richest 20% own what percent of all stock? 90% of all stock
What is meant by nouveau riche? new money
What is conspicuous consumption? lavish spending on goods and services to display one's social status and to enhance one's prestige
Are upper-middle class members more or less likely to work 50 or more hours per week? more
Who is more likely to watch television as their primary recreational activity-middle or working class? working class
What is absolute poverty? not having enough money to afford the most basic necessities of life
What is relative poverty? not having enough money to maintain an average standard of living
Why are most people poor? 1.individual characteristics 2.structural characteristics
As more businesses relocated to the suburbs how does this affect poor minorities (especially those concentrated in inner city areas)? Are unlikely to hear about employment possibilities or to have the transportation to get to even low-skill jobs
What is horizontal mobility? moving from one position to another at the same class level
Why are low-income countries under developed according to dependency theory? Because they are pawns that high-income countries exploit and dominate
What is vertical mobility? moving up or down the class hierarchy
What is intragenerational mobility? moving up or down the class hierarchy over a lifetime
What is intergenerational mobility? Moving up or down the class hierarchy relative to the position of one's parents
What is corporate welfare? an array of direct subsidies, tax breaks, and assistance that the government has created for business
About 93% of those in extreme poverty live in what three groups? East Asia, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa
Why are low-income countries poor according to modernization theory? Because of traditional attitudes about technology and institutions. They adhere to traditional customs that isolate them from competing in a global economy
In a study comparing people with white-and black-sounding names, people with white-sounding names received how many calls for interviews? 50% more calls
By 2025, what percent of the U.S. population is projected to be white-down from this percent in 1950 -58% -86%
All human beings carry what percent of the same genetic material? 99.9%
The current proportion of foreign-born U.S. residents is lower/higher than in 1900 lower -11% to 15% in 1990
In 2006, how many unauthorized, illegal immigrants were in the U.S.? 12 million
How many people have been victims of genocide during the 20th century? 63 million
What does the contact hypothesis state? The diea that the more people get to know members of a minority group personally, the less likely they are to be prejudiced against that groups
Know in order the 5 largest ethnicities of European descent in the U.S. 1.German 2.Irish 3.English 4.Italian 5.Polish
Word wide, what countries have larger Latino population than the U.S.? only Mexico and Colombia
What group has the largest median income of all U.S. racial-ethnic groups? Asian Americans
What group has higher educational levels than any other racial-ethnic group in the U.S.? Asian Americans
What american Indian tribes have more than 100,000 members? Cherokee, Navajo, Chippewa, and Sioux
When did American Indians get the right to vote? 1924
Arab Americans are more likely than the average U.S. resident to have a college degree more
What is Tiger Woods ethnic makeup? 1/8 - caucasian 1/4 - black 1/8 - American Indian 1/4 - Thai 1/2 - Chinese
What states has the largest proportion of people who identify themselves as more than one race? Hawaii
In 1958 only ___ % of Americans approved of marriage between blacks and whites. By 2007, ____ % approved such unions -1958: 4% -2007: 77%
High Income Countries -occupy about 35% of the world's land -3/4 of the population live in/near cities -GNI per capita $36,608 -U.S., Australia, Western Europe, Canada, Japan
Middle Income Countries -1/2 world's population -3.1 billion people: 48% of the world's population -19% of the world's income
Low-Income Countries -25% of the people live in cities -2.4 billion people: 40% of the world's population -3% of the world's income
Created by: taylorann93