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greenstick fracture An incomplete fracture in which the bone usually is bent. common in children.
transverse fracture fracture at a right angle to the bone's axis.
oblique fracture a fracture in which the break has a curve or slope.
comminuted fracture a fracture in which the bone fragments into pieces.
impact fracture the ends of the fracture are driven into eachother.
spiral fracture when the two ends of the bones go in different directions causing a break.
displaced fracture when the bones of the fracture do not line up
non-displaced fracture when the bones of the fracture line up
IGF insulin-like growth factor
hGH human growth hormone
what hormone is responsible for the stop in long bone growth? estrogen
what stage of life causes a surge of sex hormones and a growth spurt? puberty
stages of bone repair are: inflammation, soft callus, and hard callus.
inflammation is when: the break opens all local blood vessels and blood pools in the area forming a blood clot. the body sends a rush of cells to the area to form a natural protection.
soft callus is when: the fibroblasts make rubbery collagen fibers the hold together the loose parts of the fracture.
hard callus is when: the soft callus become hardened as osteoblasts deposit minerals.
how much of your body's bone is being remodeled at any given time? 5%
How much compact bone is renewed each year? 4%
how much spongy bone is renewed each year? 20%
what parts of the body are included in the integumentary system? skin, hair, glands, muscles, pigments, and nerves.
what is skin also known as? the cutaneus membrane
what are skins three main claims to fame? 1. covers the external surface of the body 2.is the largest organ in the body 3. can regulate temp, protect, waterproof, and make vitamins.
how many layers of skin are there? 2 layers and 1 non-layer (epidermis, dermis, and hypo-dermis)
Thin Skin? covers all parts of the body except soles of feel, palms, and undersides of fingers. the epidermis is thin, has hair, and oil glands. sensory receptors are widely distributed.
Thick Skin Located on soles of feet, palms, and underside of fingers. does not have hair, lacks oil glands, has a thick epidermis, and the sensory receptors are closer together and they have sweat glands.
suboriferous glands? sweat gland
sebacious gland? oil gland
cells in epidermis? keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans, markel cell.
Keratinocyte most numerous, they have lamellar granules that give skin its water proofing.
melanocytes contain melanin that leave the melanocytes and protect the keratinocytes from the uv rays of the sun.
melanoma Cancer of the melanocytes
lengerhans fright off infections in the skin, only a small amount of these cells.
markel cells are sensory cells and detect pressure points.
layers of the epidermis? Come, Lets Get Sun Burned! Stratum Cornum, Stratum Lucidum (only in thick skin), Stratum Granulosum, Stratum Spinosum, Stratum Brasale
what is the only layer that goes through mitosis? Basal layer
what is the dermis mainly made of? connective tissue, collagen fibers and elastic fibers.
cells of the dermis fibroblast, macrophages, adiposts
things imbedded in the dermis blood vessels, nerves, glands, and hair follicles
What does the papillary region contain? capillary loops, corpuscles of touch, free nerve endings.
what is the papillary region made of? 1/5 of the dermis, elastic fibers, areolar connective tissue, and enhanced by dermal papillae.
Reticular Region is? 80% of the dremis, attached to the hypodermis, consists of dense irregular tissue and collagen fibers.
where are the base of the sweat and oil glands? the reticular region.
what does the reticular region provide? extensibility and elasticity.
stretch marks are formed in what layer of the skin? the reticular region.
dermal ridges fingerprints, can be straight lines or loops. glands are open on ridges.
skin color is determined by? melanin, carotin, and hemoglobin.
Created by: Mtx3vb