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Drugs and Behavior


Modern Neuropharmacology •Basic Science: -Use of drugs to understand the brain •Biomedical Science: -Cure and treatment of mental disorders –Understanding addiction –Cognitive enhancers •Behavioral Pharmacology has applications to all
Drug Delivery Dose vs Dosage Acute vs chronic Routes of Delivery
Blood Brain Barrier Body capillaries: large gaps, drugs pass freely Brain Capillaries: dense, walled structure, surrounded by glial cells
Research Methods •Immunocytochemistry •In situ hybridization •Microiontophoresis •Molecular analysis •Receptor binding (Immuno, Autoradiography) •Behavioral pharmacology •Epidemiology
Neurotransmitters Amino Acids •(GABA, Glutamate (Glu), Glycine(Gly) •Excitatory vs Inhibitory •Receptor subtypes •GABA and inhibition •Excitotoxicity •Dale’s principle
Neurotransmitters Amines •Ach,NE,Epinephrine,Dopamine,Histomine, 5-HT •Receptor subtypes •Diffuse modulatory effects: Core, small set of neurons, Widespread terminations, Diffusion out of synaptic cleft •modulate other transmitters in both directions
Neurotransmitters Neuropeptides •Peptide Hormones: Oxytocin, SubsP, CCK, Vasopressin, Neuropeptide Y, Hypothalamic releasing hormones •Opiate Peptides: Enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins
Neuropeptide Characteristics •Neuropeptide transmitters colocalize with each other and with amine and amino acid neurotransmitters •synthesized in the nucleus and transported to the terminals •Stored in secretory granules instead of synaptic vesicles
Precursors and Enzymes: Ach –Acetyl CoA –Choline –Chat –Acetyl cholinesterase
Precursors and Enzymes: Serotonin –Tryptophan –Tryptophan hydroxylase –5HTP –Dopa-L-decarboxylase –MAO
Neurotranmitter Criteria •Exists in presynaptic terminals •Presynaptically synthesis •Released because of action potential •Postsynaptic membrane has receptors •Synapse stimulation produces response •Blockade of release shuts down or substantially alters synaptic function.
Basal Forebrain Projections •Septohippocampal •Septocortical •Septoamygdala •Midbrain projection to the thalamus
Definitions •Selectivity •Specificity •Potency •Affinity •Addiction •Dependence •Tolerance •Insensitivity
Law of Mass Action D + R <-> DR
Definition of Doses •ED50: Median Effective Dose •LD50: Median Lethal Dose •CD50: Median Convulsive Dose •KD50: Measure of affinity
Drug Abuse: Cannabinoids Cannabinoid receptors are widely distributed in the brain especially in the motor control pathways, hippocampus, and cortex
CNS Depressants •Include alcohol, barbituates and barbituate like substances, and anxiolytics(benzodiazepines) •Used to treat sleep disorders, pain, anxiety •Can cause physical dependence. •Brain effects are primarily GABA-ergic.
Anxiolytics •Prevalence of anxiety disorders •Self-medication: alcohol, barbiturates •Discovery of specific benzodiazepine receptor on GABAacomplex •Valium: potentiates GABA effects (useful: potential drug for epilepsy).
Models of Drug Use •The moral model •The disease model: no explanation of how drug use commences •The physical dependence model: but lack of physical withdrawal effects with some drugs •The cellular effects model •The positive reward model •Animal research model
Positive Rewards Model Cocaine elevates synaptic DA concentrations leading to the euphoric properties of the drug. After use, DA decreases to below normal levels causing dysphoria and cravings.
Biological psychology and treatments for drug abuse •Opiates and naltrexone, methadone •Alcohol and Antabuse •Benzodiazepinesas treatment for withdrawal symptoms •Nicotine gum and patches.
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Created by: brown55