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Patho Final 305

Comprehensive patho final for Capstone College of Nursing

QuestionAnswer
atherosclerotic changes of the coronary arteries; impairs myocardial tissue perdusion; angina and infarction coronary artery disease
chest pain resulting from myocardium ischemia (lack of o2)demand greater than supply angina
necrotic damage to myocardium infarction
manifestations: angina, indigestion-like sensation, nausea, vomiting, clammy extremities, diaphoresis, fatigue coronary artery disease
inadequate pumping of heart, leads to decreased CO, increased preload, and increased afterload. sympathetic nervous system activated to increase heart rate and BP. renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system activated. heart failure
heart failure: decreased contractility causes decreased CO systolic dysfunction
heart failure: decreased filling results from abnormal myocardial relaxation; doesn't rest normally, decreased preload diastolic dysfuntion
CO falls, blood backs up to pulmonary circulation (crackles) left-sided heart failure
blood backs up to systemic circultaion (swelling, edema, weight gain) right-sided heart failure
electrical activity of heart superior/inferior VC--> right atrium--> tricuspid--> right ventrical--> pulmonary valve--> pulmonary artery--> gas exchange in lungs--> pulmonary vein--> left atrium--> mitral valve--> left ventrical--> aortic valve-->aorta-->body
prolonged elevation in BP; excessive cariac workload due to increased afterload and vasoconstriction hypertension
contractin of heart; increased electrical charge accomplished through cellular ion exchange depolarization
heart resting; cellular recovery; ions returning to cell membrane in preparation for depolarization repolarization
atrial depolarization p wave
ventrical depolarization qrs wave
ventrical repolarization t wave
cardiac compression from excessive fluid accumulation; life threatening, prevents the heart from stretching and filling during diastole which decreases CO cardiac tamponade
disrupt blood flow through the heart; two types: stenosis and regurgitation valvular disorders
narrowing of valve; less blood can flow through the valve which causes blood to backup in the chamber just before the valve; causes decreased CO (not as much blood is getting through), increased cardiac workload, and hypertrophy stenosis
insufficiant valve closure; blood flows in both directions through valve; causes decreased CO, increased cardiac workload, hypertrophy, and dilation regurgitaion
group of conditions that weaken and enlarge the myocardium cardiomyopathy
cardiomyopathy: cardiomegaly and ventricular dilation damages myocardium muscle fibers, resulting in decreased CO and blood stagnation. Caused by alcoholism and cocaine abuse dilated cardiomyopathy
manifestations: prthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, peripheral edema, ascites, hepatomegaly, jugular vein distention dilated cardiomyopahty
cardiomyopathy: mainly affects diastolic function; more common in men and those who arent active; ventricle walls become stiff and unable to relax during ventricle filling hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
cardiomyopathy: rigidity of ventricles that leads to diastolic dysfunction; like hypertrophic but diff causes; caused by amyloidosis (protien deposits in muscle) and hemochromatosis (iron build up) restrictive cardiomyopathy
narrowing of the peripheral vessels caused by atherosclerosis, thromus, inflammation, and vasospasms PVD
an inflammatory condition of the arteries thromboangiitis obliterans
vasospasms of arteries, usually in hands, because of sympathetic stimulation raynaud's disease
manifestions: pain in extremeities bc of bad blood flow; numbness; burning; non-healing wounds; skin color changes; hair loss PVD
air in the pleural cavity; can cause lung to collapse pneumothorax
air enters pleural cavity from an opening in the internal airways spontaneoous pneumothorax
pneumothorax: results of any blunt or penetrating injury to the chest traumatic pneumothorax
pneumothorax: occurs when the pressure in the pleural space is greater than the atmospheric pressure due to trapped air in the pleural space or entering air from a positive-pressure mechanical ventilator; lung collapse= shift heart. CO drop tension pneaumothorax
manifestations: sudden chest pain, chest tightness, dyspnea, decreased breath sounds, asymmetrical chest movement, anxiety Pneumothorax
collapse of the alveoli caused by sufractant deficiencies, bronchus obstruction, lung tissue compression, increased surface tension, lung fibrosis; ventilation and perfusion problem atelectasis
manifestations: diminsished breath sounds, dyspnea, asymmetirical lung movement; anxiety, restlessness, tracheal deviation, tachycardia atelectasis
inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree or large bronchi caused by viruses, bacteria, irritant inhalation, and allergic reactions acute bronchitis
manifestations: productive and nonproductive cough, dyspnea, wheezing, low-grade fever, pharyngitis, malaise, and chest discomfort acute bronchitis
"blue bloaters" characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, a productive cough, and excessive mucus production chronic bronchitis
manifestations: hypoventilation, hypoxemia, cyanosis, hyperacpnea, club fingers chronic bronchitis
destruction of the alveolar walls leads to large, permanently inflated alveoli; enzyme necessary for lung remodeling is deficient; loss of elastic recoil and hyperinflation of alveoli, leading to air trapping emphysema
manifestiaions: dyspnea upon exertion, diminished breath sounds, wheezing, chest tightness, tachypnea, activity intolerance emphysema
debilitaing chronic disorders characterized by irreversible, progressive tissue degeneration and airway obstruction; severe hypoxia and hypercapnia can lead to respiratory failure; can also lead to cor pulmonale. body gets use to low o2 levels COPD
often asymptomatic early or masked by smoking; two main conditions= chronic bronchitis and emphysema COPD
inflammation of the epiglottis; life- threatening; caused by influenza type b and throat trauma (smoking crack) epiglottitis
manifestations: stridor, fever, sore throat, difficutly swallowing, drooling with open mouth epiglottitis
caused by infectious agents, injurious agents or events, and pulmonary secretion stasis; viral or bacterial; complications= septicemia, pulmonary edema, lung abscess, ARDS pneumonia
pneumonia: caused by impaired gag reflex, improper lower espoohageal sphincter closure, inappropriate tube-feeding placement aspiration pneumonia
pneumonia: confined to a single lobe lobular pneumonia
pneumonia: most frequent type; a patchy pneumonia througout several lobes bronchopneumonia
pneumonia: occurs in areas bq alveoli; routinely caused by viruses or by uncommon bacteria interstitial pneumonia or atypical
pneumonia: aquired outside the hospital or healthcare setting community-aquired pneumonia
pneumonia: caused by virus that thrives in warm, moist environments, particulary air conditioning systems and spas. non contagious- spread through aerosoled droplets legionnaires' disease
pneumonia: caused by yeast like fungus; opportunisitc infection pneumocysitc carinii pneumonia
most frequently occurs in lungs, but can spread to other organs; carried by airborne droplets; caused by bacillus mycobaterium tuberculosis TB
when bacillus first enters body; macrophages engulf the microbe causeing local inflammatory response, granuloma and tubercle form, caseous necrosis, will test positive Primary infection of TB
reactivation of dormant bacilli; can spread to other organs; sumptoms usually develop secondary infection of TB
manifestations: productive cough, night sweats, unexplained weight loss, anorexia, coughing up blood TB
chronic disorder that results in intermittent, reversible airway obstruction. characterized by acute airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, bronchospasm, bronchiole edema, and mucus production asthma
manifestations: wheezing, shortness of breath, dyspnea, chest tightness,cough, tachypnew, anxiety ashtma
life-threatening, prolonged asthma attack that does not respond to usual treatment. can lead to respiratory alkalosis and respiratory fairlure quickly status asthmaticus
life-threatening condition resulting in severe lung damage and nutrition deficits; affects cells that produce mucus, sweat, saliva, and digestive secretions (secretions become thick and tenacious) caused by mutation on 7th chromosome cystic fibrosis
abnormality in protein involved in chloride cellular transport; autosomal recessive cystic fibrosis
manifestations: salty skin, fat soluble vitamin deficiency, delayed growth and development cystic fibrosis
results from a deficiency of bicarb or an excess of hydrogen metabolic acidosis
results from excess bicarb or decicient acid or both metabloic alkalosis
results from CO2 retention, which increases carbonic acid (hypoventilation) respiratory acidosis
results from excess exhalation of CO2, which leads to carbonic acid deficits (hyperventilation) respiratory alkalosis
how to assess for respiratory and metabolic acidosis/alkalosis 1. look at pH (8=acidc, 1=basic) 2. look at CO2 level (35-45) 3. if Co2 is normal, look at bicarb Respiratory Opposite Metabolic Equal
decreased workload(or diseased state) leades to decreased size of organelles leads to decreased energy usage leads to decreased functionality in disease state atrophy
increased workload (or diseased state) leads to increase size and # of organelles leads to increase contractility leads to decreased functionality in disease state hypertrophy
increased workload physiological state leads to increased tissue size by increasing # of cells leads to increased functionality leads to compensatory & hormonal hyperplasia
pathological, normal cells replaced abnormal cells (cigarette smoking) metaplasia
pathological, normal cells mutate to abnormal cells (cervical cancer) dysplasia
caused from nondisjunction during meiosis; down's syndrome trisomy 21
manifestations: small square head, upward eye sland, small low set ears, fat pad on back of neck, open mouth with protruding toungue trisomy 21
manifestations: change in bowel or bladder habbits, sore that doesn't heal, unusual bleeding or discharge, thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere, indigestion or difficulty swallowing, change in wart or mole, nagging cough or hoarsness cancer
complications of cancer anemia, cachexia, fatique, infection, leukopenia, throbocytopenia, pain
stages of cancer 0-IV 0- just beginning I- organ of origin II- may or may not have traveled into lymph system III- grown in size, deff in lymph system IV- in another ofran diff from where it started
higher solute concentrations, causing fluids to shift; lots of particles; pulls water from cells into vascular space to get rid of; cell shrinks hypertonic
lower solute concentrations, causing fluids to shift out; cells swell; give to a dehydrated person hypotonic
equal solute concentrations, causes no fluid shifts isotonic
too much sodium hypernatremia >145; edema, decreased urine output, dry mucus membranes, thirst (dehydration)
not enough sodium hyponatremia <135; edema, dry mucous membranes, fluid volume excess
too much chloride hyperchloremia >180; hypernatremia
not enough chloride hypochloremia <98; hyponatremia
too much potassium hyperkalemia >5; muscle weakness, numbess or tingling, respiratory depression, stomach upset
not enough potassium hypokalemia <3.5; muscle weakness, numbness, tingling, leg crampls, weak pulse, decreased GI motility
too much calcium hypercalemia >5 weak, sedate4d, decreased reflexes, may be lethargic or in a coma
not enough calcium hypocalcemia <4; twitchy, hyperactive, heart arithmeas
too much phosphate hyperphophatemia >4.5; hypocalcemia
not enough phosphate hypophosphatemia <2.5; hypercalcemia
too much magnesium hypermagnesemia > 2.5; hypercalcemia
not enough magnesium hypomagnesemia <1.8; hypocalcemia
shock: results from heart failure, most cases follow MI, notoriously unresponsive to treatment. CM- impaired mentation, systemic and pulmonary edema, low CO, dusky skin color, low BP, oliguria, ileus, and dyspnea cardiogenic shock
shock: caused by loss of blood, plasma, or interstitial fluin in large amounts, begins to develp when ICF volume has decreased by 15%. CM- poor skin turgor, thirst,oliguria, rapid heart rate hypovolemic shock
shock: massive vasodilation caused by trauma to spinal cord or medulla, depressice drugs,anethetics, seere emotional stress or pain. CM- very low BP, bradycardia, fainting neurogenic shock
shock: most severe, sudden onset, begins as allergic reaction. vasodilation, smooth muscle constriction in airway. CM- anxiety, difficutly breathing, edema, hives, burning or itching of skin anaphylactic shock
shock: begins with an infection, progresses to bacteremia, then sepsis, then septic shock, then multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. most often caused by gram neg. bacteria. CM- low BP, hypoxia, taqchycardia, temp instability, renal dysfunction, jaundice septic shock
normal creatine range 0.1-1.2
normal BUN 10-20
normal creatine clearance 125, want it to be >60
bilateral inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli that typically follows strep glomerulonephritis
results from antibody-antigen complexes lodging in the glomerular membrane triggering the complement system, proteinuria nephrotic syndrome
inflammatory injury to the glomeruli that can occur bc of antibodies interacting with normally occuring antigens in the glomeruli, gross hematuria nephritic syndrome
renal failure: extremely low bpor blood volume, heart dysfunction prerenal conditions
renal failure: reduced blood supply within the kidneys, hemolytic uremic syndrome, renal inflammation, toxic injury intrarenal conditions
renal failure: ureter obstruction, bladder obstruction and dysfunction postrenal conditions
describe renin angiotensin aldosterone related to kidneys when we have a decrease in CO (BP) renin is turned on, Ai converted to A2, tells adrenals to release aldosterone which tells kidneys to hold onto NA and water which will increase circulating volume inn body and increase BP
urinary incontinence resulting from temporary condition( elderly, fecal impaction) transient incontinence
loss of urine from pressure exerted on the bladder by coughing, sneezing, llaughing, exercising, or lifting something heavy. occurs then sphincter muscle of bladder is weakened stress incontinence
sudden, intense urge to urinate followed by an involuntary loss or urine (overactive bladder) urge incontinence
urinary incontinence caused by trauma or damage to nervous system, urgency is generally absent reglex incontinence
inablity to empty bladder, or retention, can cause infection. other incications include dribbling urine and a weak urine stream overflow incontinence
urinary incontinence: no storagbe capacity of bladder due to spinal cord injury or genentics gross total incontinence
inflammation of the bladder; the bladder and urethra walls become red and swollen; c aused by infection and irritants. CM- UTI symptoms, abdominal pain, and pelvic pressure cystitis
infection that has reached one or both kidneys; E-coli is most common culprit; kidneys become grossly edematous and fill with exudate, compressing renal artery; abscesses and necrosis can develop, impairing renal function and causing perminand damage pyelonephritis
manifestations: severe UTI symptoms, flank pain, and increased BP pyelonephritis
presence of renal calculi, hard crystals composed of minerlas that the kidneys normally excrete; risk factors- pH changes, urinary stasis, family history, obesity, hypertension, diet urolithiasis
manifestations: flank area pain, groin or leg pain, bloody cloudy or foul smelling urine, dysuria, frequency, nausea vommiting, fever chills urolithiasis
the only immunoglobulin that crosses the placenta, responsible for secondary immune response. 80-85% igG
antibody found in tears, saliva, and breast milk igA
antibody responsible for primary immune response, forms anitibodies to ABO antigens, largest and first responder igM
antibody that causes symptoms of allergic reaction igE
antibody that functions as NK, info is limited igD
cells that work on the outside of a cell, have memory; humoral immunity, fight against bacterial invasion B cells
cells that work on the inside of cell, have memory; cell-mediated immunity, respond to intracellular invasion T cells
contact with antigen through clinical infection (chicken pox, measles, mumps) natural active
immunization with live or killed vaccines articial active
transplacental and/or breast milk transfer from mother to child natural passive
injection of serum from immune human (rabies, tetanus, snake bite) artificial passive
chronic inflammatory condition that may affect CT of any body organ; disease progression varies from milld to severe; cause is unclear but thought that B cells are activated to produce autoantibodies and autoantigens that combine to form immune complexes lupus
manifestations: butterfly rash, skin rash, photosensitivity, mucous membrane ulcers, arthritis, pleuritis or pericarditis, renal abnormalities, brain irritation, blood abnormalities, immunologic disorder, antinuclear antibody lupus
parasitic retrovirus that infects CD4 and macrophages upon entry HIV
nonspecific line of defense; skin and mucous membranes first line
nonspecific line of defense; inflammatory response, pyrogens, interferons, complement proteins second line
specific line of defense; T cells and B cells third line
delayed hypersensitivity reaction; cell-mediated rather than Ab mediated involving T cells; (TB skin test, transplant reactions, contact dermatitis) type IV
cytoxic hypersensitivity reaction; igG or igM Ab react to foreign tissue of cells, lysis of blood cells bc of complement activation, usually immediate response (blood transfusion reaction, erythroblastosis fetalis) type II
igE mediated hypersensitivity reaction; produces immediate response, local or systemic (hay fever, food allergies, anaphylaxis) type I
immune-complex- mediated hypersensitivity reaction; circulating Ab-Ag complexes accumulate and are deposited in tissue; triggers comp. system and inflammation (autoimmune conditins, lupus) Type III
what happens when serum glucose levels are down alpha cells secrete glucagon beta cells secrete insulin which gets glucose into cells and promotes fat storage
diabetes: tissues don't respond to insulin; pancreas gradually loses ability to produce insulin type 2
diabetes: develops when the body's immune system ddestroys pancreatic beta cells; autoimmune, genetic; these people require insulin type 1
characterized by excessive release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) from the posterior pituitary gland or another source. The result is hyponatremia and sometimes fluid overload. SIADH
condition in which the kidneys are unable to conserve water. Symptoms: Excessive thirst May be intense or uncontrollable; May involve a craving for ice water. Excessive urine volume diabetes insipidus
manifestations: fatigue, sluggishness, increased sensitivity to cold, constipation, pale and dry skin, facial edema, hoarsness, hypercholerterolemia, unexplained weight gain, muscle weakness, hair loss or thinning, bradycardia hypothyroidism
rare and life-threatening advanced hypothyroidism myxedema coma
manifestations: everything charged up, person constantly moving, losing weight, hungry all the time, exopthalmus hyperthyroidism
manifestations: parethesias of the fingertips, toes, and lips; muscle twitching or smasms; fatigue or weakness; hypotension; patchy hair loss; dry, coarse skin; brittle nails hypoparathyroidism
manifestations: hypermag, hyperphosph., kidney stones, metabolic acidosis hyperparathyroidism
condition of excessive amounts of glucocorticoids. CM- obessity, moonface, buffalo hump, delayed growth, acne, easily bruised, trouble controlling blood sugar cushing's syndrome
deficiency of adrenal cortex hormones. CM- chronic diarhhea, loss of color, orthostatic hypertension, have to change positions very slowly, hypoclycemia addison's disease
manifestations: shaking, tachycardia, sweating, anxious, dizzy, hungry, impaired vision, weakness, fatigue, headache, grumpy hypoglycemia
manifestations: dry skin, blurred vision, nausea, polyuria, polydispea, polyphagia hyperglycemia
caused by HPV; CM- asymptomatic, continuous vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal bleeding cervical cancer
most common form of dementia; brain tissue degenerates and atrophies, causing a steady decline in memory and mental abilities alzheimer's
autoimmune condition in which acetylcholine receptors are impaired or destroyed by igG autoantibodies, leading to a disruption of normal communication bw the nerve and muscle at the neuromuscular junction myasthenia gravis
debilitating autoimmune condition that involves a progressie and irreversible demyelination of brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerve neurons; damage occurs in diffuse patches throughout the nervous system and slows or stops nerve impulses multiple sclerosis
progressive condition involving the destruction of the substantia nigra in the brain; results in a lack of dopamine; tremors parkinsons
cranial nerves 1-olfactory 2-optic 3-occulomotor 4-trochlear 5-trigimenal 6-abducens 7-facial 8-vestibulocochlear 9-glossopharyngeal 10-vagus 11-accessory 12-hypoglossal
manifestations: not being able to recall event details; changes in or unequal pupil size; seizures; asymmetrical facial features; fluid drainage from nose, mouth, ears TBI
lobe: conscious thought; damage can result in mood changes, social differences, etc. frontal
lobe:plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various senses, and in the manipulation of objects; parietal
lobe: sense of sight; lesions can produce hallucinations occipital
lobe:senses of smell and sound, as well as processing of complex stimuli like faces and scenes. temporal
hematoma that results from bleeding bw the dura and the skull, usually caused by arterial tear. loss of conciousness, short period of alertness, loss of conciousness epidural hematomas
hematoma developed bw the dura and arachnoid, frequently caused by a small venous tear subdural hematomas
hematoma: result from bleeding in the brain tissue itself; caused by contusion or shearing injuries but can also result from hypertension, cerebral vascular accidents (strokes), aneurysms, or vascular abnormalities intracerebral hematomas
hematoma that results from bleeding in the space bw the arachnoid and pia; primary clinical presentation is a severe headache with a sudden onset and that is worse near the back of the head subarachnoid hemorrhage
process of forming blood hematopoiesis
anemia caused by decerased iron consumption, decreased iron absorption, and increased bleeding. CM- cyanosis to sclera, brittle nails, decreased appetite, headache, irritability, stomatitis, pica, delayed healing iron-deficiency anemia
vit b12 deficiency usually caused by a lack of intrinsic factor; autoimmune; leads to decreased maturation and cell division; may see myelin breakdown and neurological complications pernicious anemia
manifestations: bleeding gums, diarrhea, impaired smell, loss of deep tendon reflexes, anorexia, personality or memory changes pernicious anemia
bone marrow depression of all blood cells. CM- anemia (weakness, pallor, dyspnea), leukocytopenia (recurrent infections), thrombocytopenia (bleeding) aplastic anemia
excessive erythrocyte destruction. causes: idiopathic, autoimmune, genetics, infections, blood transfusion reactions, and blood incompatibility in the neonate. hemolytic anemia
neither recessive nor dominant but co-dominant; hemoglobin S causes erythrocytes to be abnormally shaped; abnormal erythrocytes carry less oxygen and clog vessels causing hypoxia and tissue ischemia sickle cell anemia
manifestations: infections and ulcerations especially of the respiratory tract, skin, vagina, GI tract; signs and symptoms of infection neutropenia
manifestations: weakness, fatigue, pallor, syncope (faiting) dyspnea, tachycardia anemia
abnormally high erythrocytes; rare; considered a neoplastic disease; increased blood volume and viscosity leading to tissue ischemia and necrosis polycythemia
manifestations: cyanotic and plethoric skin, high bp, tachycardia (vessels trying to work much harder), dyspnea (blood too thick to circulate) polycythemia
life threatening complications of many conditions; results from inappropriate immune response; widespread coagulation followed by massive bleeding bc of depletion of clotting factors; CM-tissue ischemia and bleeding disseminated intravascular coagulation
form of sickle cell anemia: heterozygous, less than half of rbcs are sickled sickle cell trait
form of sickle cell anemia: homozygous, most severe, almost all rbcs are sickled sickle cell disease
painful episodes that can last for hours to days; pain is caused by tissue ischemia and necrosis; triggered by dehydration, stress, high altitudes, and fever sickle cell crisis
acute inflammatory reaction triggered by direct exposure to an irritant or allergen-producing substance; not contagious or life threatening; irritant=inflammation at site of contact; allergic= type IV reaction bc delayed contact dermatitis
common chronic inflammatory condition that affects the skin cell life cycle; cellular proliferation is significantly increased causing cells to build up too rapidly on the skins surface; normally takes weeks but occurs over 3-4 days with this disease; psoriasis
rapid turnover of skin causes thickening of dermis and epidermis; triggers= bacterial or viral infections, dry skin, skin injuries, meds, stress, sun exposure, excessive alcohol, different chemicals psoriasis
vascular birthmark; faint red marks often occuring on the forehead, eyelids, posterior neck, nose, upper lip or posterior head macular stains
vascular birthmark; also referred to as a strawberry; bright red patch of extra blood vessels in the skin; may be superficial or deep hemanogiomas
vascular birthmark; discolorations that look like wine was spilled on skin; most often occur on the face, neck, arms, and legs; can be any size but they grow as the child grows port-wine stains
pigmented birthmark; color of coffee with milk; can be anywhere on the body and sometimes increase in number with age cafe au lait spots
pigmented birthmarks; flat, bluishh-gray patches; often found on the lower back or buttocks; most common on those with darker complexions mongolian spots
pigmented birthmark; also called congenital nevi or hairy nevi; brown nevi; can be tan, brown or black; flat or raised; and may have hair growth mole
rare condition characterized by small patchy areas of hypopigmentation; occurs when the cells taht produce melanin die or no longer form melanin, causing slowly enlarging white patches of irregular shapes on the skin vitiligo
chronic inflammatory condition triggered by an allergen; has an inherited tendency; may be accompanied by asthma and allergic rhinitis; may affect any area but typically appears on the arms and behind the knees atopic eczema
manifestations: red to brownish-gray colored skin patches; pruritus, which may be severe, especially at night; vesicles; thickened, crackled, or scaly skin; irritated, sensitive skin from scratching atopic eczema
begins in the hair follicles and then spreads into surrounding dermis; most commonly occur on the face, neck, axillae, groin, butt, and back furuncles
common and highly contagious bacterial skin infection; can occur without an apparent skin break, but typically arises from a break in the skin impetigo
bacterial skin infection that occurs deep in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue; usually results from a direct invasion thru a break in the skin, especially those breaks where contamination is likely, or spreads from an existing skin infection; cellulitis
rare, serious, bacterial skin infection; can aggressively destroy skin, fat, muscle, and other tissue; bacteria release toxins in tissues necrotizingfascilitis
viral skin infection that typically affects the lips, mouth, and face; transmitted thru contact/saliva herpes simplex type 1
caused by the varicella-zoster virus; appears in adulthood years after a primary infection of varicella in childhood herpes zonster
warts caused by a number of the human papilloma virus verrucae
burn that affects only the epidermis and cause pain, erythema, and edema; most pain first degree burn
burn that affects the dermis and epidermis and causes pain, erythema, edema and blistering second degree burn
burn that extends into deeper tissues and cause white or blackened, charred skin that may be numb; no pain bc nerves are killed third degree burn
most common skin cancer; develops from abnmormal growth of the cells in the lowest layer of the epidermis; rarely metasticize basal cell carcinoma
skin cancer that involves changes int he squamous cells, found in the middle layer of the epidermis squamous cell carcinoma
skin cancer that develps in the melanocytes; least common but most serious type; often metastasizes to other areas melanoma
Created by: nmgroover