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Science unit 1

unit one science

What are the characteristics of living things? They reproduce, respond to the environment, they remove wastes, they need energy, and they need to grow.
What is the cell theory? 1)Cells are the basic unit of lif2 2)Cells come from per-existing cells. 3)All living things are made of cells.
Nucleus like the brain.
Cell membrane this structure is like a skin that surrounds the whole cell. It keeps the inside of the cell separate from what is outside it. It also controls what enters and leaves the cell.
Cytoplasm This clear, jelly-like fluid holds the organelles of the cell in place.
Mitochondria These ban-shaped structures are the energy producers.
Vacuoles they store energy materials such as wastes for a short time. Plant cells usually have big ones while animal cells have small ones.
Cell wall It surrounds the cell membrane of plant cells. It also gives the plant cell protection and supports its box-like shape.
Chloroplasts These green-coloured structures in plant cells trap the Sun's light energy and change it to chemical energy for use by cell.
Plant cell vs animal cell Plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplast, they are larger and rectangular, and their vacuole is big. Animal cells do not have a cell wall or a chloroplast, they are smaller and oval like, they also have a small vacuole.
Prokaryotic vs eukaryotic Prokaryotic cells are the oldest, they have no nucleus, no organelles, and they are bacteria. Eukaryotic cells are newer, they have a nucleus and they have organelles.
Viruses 1)They are non living. 2)Need a host cell to reproduce. 3)Much smaller than bacteria.
Diffusion Movement of particles from high to low concentration.
Osmosis Diffusion of water from high to low concentration.
Cells Basic unit of life.
Tissue A group of cells that have the same structure and function.
Organ A group of tissues working together to perform a task.
Organ system A system that includes one or more organs that wok together to perform specific functions in the body.
Organism A living thing.
Body system Cells-> Tissue-> Organ-> Organ system-> Organism
Circulatory system Transports blood, nutrients, gases, and wastes.
Digestive system Takes in food. Breaks down food. Absorbs nutrients. Eliminates solid wastes.
Respiratory system Controls breathing. Exchanges gases in lungs and tissues.
Excretory system Removes liquid and gas wastes from the body.
Immune system Defends the body against infections.
Reproductive system Includes reproductive organs for producing offsprings.
Integumentary system Includes skin, hair, and nails. Creates a waterproof protective barrier around the body.
Skeletal system Supports, protects, and works with muscles to move parts of the body.
Muscular system Has muscles that work with the bones to move parts of the body.
Nervous system Detects changes in the environment and signals there changes tp the body, which carries out a response.
Carbohydrates The body's quickest source of energy.
Proteins Used to build parts of your body(Muscles, skin, hair, and nails)
Fats Are used to cell membranes;stored for later use.
Minerals & Vitamins Are needed by the body in small amounts to perform various body functions.
Antibody vs antigen An antibody is specific particles created by the immune system to destroy specific disease-causing invaders. Antigens are any substances the body cannot recognize, usually a non living particle.
B cells A type of white blood cells that recognize antigens present in the body and produces specific antibodies to fight them.
T cells Specialized white blood cells that fight diseases either by activating B cells(helper t cells) or by attacking antigens directly.
Larynx A tube-like structure that contains the vocal cords; air passes through it to produce sounds of the voice.
Arteries vs veins Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart while veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
Innate vs acquired immunity Innate immunity response to invading pathogens is quick and general, or non-specific. Acquired immune response is a highly specific attack on a particular pathogen or antigen.
Eating disorders Anorexia, bulimic, and obesity.
Function of cartilage in trachea The function is to protect the trachea from collapsing.
Capillaries Are very thin blood vessels that link arteries with veins. Oxygen diffuses from capillaries into cells. Carbon dioxide diffuses from cells into capillaries.
First line of defence It's physical, it stops pathogens from entering the body through the skin, linings of systems, sweat and oil on skin, aside and stomach, and mucus and cilia.
Second line of defence Has two parts innate and acquired.
Compound light Microscope The type of microscope usually used in science classes and medical laboratories to enlarge images.
Electron Microscope A microscope of extremely high power.
Magnification power The number of times larger an image appears under a particular lens.
Resolving power The ability of a microscope to distinguish between two objects that are very close together.
Scanning electron microscope AS powerful microscope that scientists use for research.
When were early microscopes built? In the late 1600s and early 1700s
Endoplasmic reticulum In cells, a network of membrane-covered channels that transport materials.
Ribosomes Cell parts that assemble proteins.
Golgi body A structure in cells that sorts proteins and packs then into vesicles.
Lysosomes A cell structure containing digestive chemicals that function to break down food particles, cell wastes, and worn-out parts.
Chloroplasts Parts of plant cells that trap energy from the Sun and change it into chemical energy that plants use.
Arteries Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart.
Veins Carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart.
Trachea Long airway passage between lungs and throat.
Cilia Tiny hairs that filter air and push particles.
Organelle A cell part in which functions are carried out to ensure the cell's survival.
Bacteria Any of various groups of single-celled micro-organisms, some of which can cause disease.
Concentration The amount of a substance contained in a given space; the more there is, the higher...
Selectively permeable membrane A membrane that allows some materials to pass through it but keeps other materials out.
Digestion The process in which food is broken down, its nutrients are absorbed and stored, and the wastes are eliminated.
Excretion The process in which liquid and gas wastes are flushed from the body.
Gastric Juice A mixture of hydrochloric acid, mucus, and enzymes that is secreted by the stomach lining and aids in digestion.
Mucus A thick, slippery substance that lines various structures and organs in the body such as the nose, lungs, and stomach.
Nutrients A substance the body needs for energy, growth, development, repair, or maintenance.
Villi Fold-like structures lining the wall of the small intestine, which increases the surface available to absorb nutrients.
Arteries Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Blood The fluid that transports substances to and from all parts of the body; consists of plasma, red blood cells, and white blood cells.
Gas exchange In the lungs, a process in which carbon dioxide passes into the alveoli, and oxygen passes into the capillaries.
Antibody Specific particles created by the immune system to destroy specific disease-causing invaders.
Antigen Any substance the body cannot recognize, usually a non-living particle.
Pathogens An organism or substance that can cause a disease.
White blood cells Blood cells that fight infection and help prevent the growth of cancer.
Amplitude The height of a wave crest or depth of a wave trough as measured from the wave's rest position; a measure of energy carried by the wave.
Crest The highest point in a wave.
Energy The capacity for applying a force.
Frequency In a wave, the number of repetitive motions,or vibrations, that occur in a given time, measured in cycles per second or hertz.
Trough The lowest point in a wave.
Wave A repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space without causing any permanent displacement of material.
Wavelength The distance from one point on a wave to the same point on the nearest wave.
Light The form of electromagnetic energy we can see.
Reflection The visible effect when light strikes an object and bounces off.
Refraction The bending or changing direction of a wave as it changes speed in moving from one material to another.
spectrum A range of frequencies for a given type of radiation.
Visible light Electromagnetic waves and wavelengths of 750-billionths to 400-billionths of a meter, which can be detected by human eyes; also called the visible spectrum.
Wave model of light A model of light behaviour that represents light traveling as a wave.
What colour does blue and green make? Cyan.
What colour does blue and red make? Magenta.
Electromagnetic Radiation The transmission of energy in the form of waves or rays, from the longest radio waves to the shortest gamma rays.
Gamma rays Electromagnetic radiation having the highest energy and frequency and shortest wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum.
Infrared Waves Electromagnetic radiation that has a wavelength longer than the red end of the visible spectrum but shorter that the radio waves.
Microwaves A type of radio wave that has the shortest wavelength of radio waves.
Radio Waves The type of electromagnetic wave that has a wavelength longer than about 1mm; used for communication.
Ultraviolet Waves Electromagnetic radiation that has a wavelength shorter than that of a violet end of the visible spectrum but longer than that of X rays.
X Rays Electromagnetic radiation having shorter wavelengths and higher energy and frequency than ultraviolet rays.
Angle of incidence The angle formed by the incident ray and the normal.
Angle of reflection The angle formed be the reflected ray and the normal.
Angle of refraction The angle of ray light emerging from the boundary between two materials, measured between the refracted ray and the normal.
Normal An imaginary line drawn perpendicular to a reflecting or refracting surface at the point where an incident ray strikes the surface.
Opaque No light can pass through.
Translucent Allowing some light through.
Transparent Allowing light to pass through.
Concave A lens that is thinner in the middle than around the edges. Curved inward.
Convex A lens that is thicker in the middle than around the edges. Curved outward.
Diverging Spreading apart.
Focal point The point at which converging light rays meet or from which light rays diverge.
Focal Length The distance from the centre of a lens or mirror to the focal point.
Lens A curved piece of transparent material that refracts light in such a way as to converge or diverge parallel light rays
Astigmatism Blurred vision caused by an irregularly shaped cornea.
Blind spot Place on the retina where the optic nerve is attached and which cannot detect light because of the absence of both rod and cone cels.
Pupil The dark, transparent region in the centre of the eye where light enters.
Iris The coloured ring of muscle surrounding the pupil of the eye.
Cornea A transparent tissue covering the iris and pupil of the eye.
Sclera An opaque tissue surrounding the cornea; visible as the white part of the eye surrounding the iris.
Retina The inner linking of the back of the eye containing light-sensetive rods and cones that convert light images into the electrical signals for interpretation by the brain.
Optic nerve The nerve that connects the eye to the brain.
What happens as the wavelength of a wave decreases? Frequency increases.
When light reflects off white paper, a mirror image does not form because? The paper is not smooth enough to reflect light rays in a regular way.
A lens that is thicker in the middle than at the edge. Is convex and magnifies the image.
Transmit, absorb Transmit means to let light pass through, while absorb means to block light without reflecting or transmitting it.
Created by: glogan