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Psychiatric Meds.

Medications for Anxiety Disorders

QuestionAnswer
What are the Benzodiazepine Sedative Hypnotic Anxiolytics? Diazepam (Valium); Alprazolam (Xanax); Lorazepam (Ativan); Chlordiazepoxide (Librium); Clorazepate (Tranxene); Oxazepam (Serax); and Clonazepam (Klonopin)
What's the expected action time of benzodiazepine sedative hypnotic anxiolytics? Relief from anxiety occurs rapidly following administration.
What are the therapeutic uses for benzodiazepine sedative hypnotic anxiolytics? GAD, PANIC DISORDER, seizure disorders, insomnia, muscle spasm, alcohol withdrawal, induction of anesthesia
What are the side/adverse effects of benzodiazepine sedative hypnotic anxiolytics? CNS depression, anterograde amnesia, acute toxicity, paradoxical response (insomnia, excitation, euphoria, anxiety, rage), and withdrawal symptoms
What medication can be administered to counteract sedation and reverse the side effects of benzodiazepine sedative hypnotic anxiolytics? Flumazenil (Romazicon)
Contraindications of benzodiazepine sedative hypnotic anxiolytics Contraindicated in clients with sleep apnea and/or respiratory depression. Use cautiously in clients who have liver disease and/or a history of substance abuse
Interactions with benzodiazepine sedative hypnotic anxiolytics CNS depressants: ETOH, barbiturates, opioids--can all cause respiratory depression
What are the Atypical Anxiolytic/Nonbarbiturate Anxiolytics? Buspirone (BuSpar)
What's the expected action time of BuSpar? It may take a week to notice first therapeutic effects, and several more weeks to reach full therapeutic effect.
What are the therapeutic uses of BuSpar? Panic disorder, OCD, social anxiety disorder, and PTSD
What are the side/adverse effects of BuSpar? CNS effects: dizziness, nausea, headache, light-headedness, agitation
Contraindications of BuSpar Use cautiously in older adults. Contraindicated for concurrent use with MAOI antidepressants, or for 14 days after MAOI's are discontinued. HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS MAY RESULT.
Interactions with BuSpar Erythromycin, ketoconazole, and grapefruit juice
What are the SSRI's? Paroxetine (Paxil); Sertraline (Zoloft); Escitalopram (Lexapro); Fluoxetine (Prozac); Fluvoxamine (Luvox); and Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
What's the expected action time for SSRI's? Takes about 4 weeks to produce therapeutic medication levels. SSRI's cause CNS stimulation.
What are the therapeutic uses for SSRI's? GAD, Panic Disorder, OCD, Social Anxiety Disorder, PTSD, Depressive Disorders
What are the side/adverse effects of SSRI's? Early adverse effects (nausea, diaphoresis, tremor, fatigue, drowsiness); Later adverse effects (sexual dysfunction, weight gain, headache) Weight gain GI bleeding Hyponatremia--obtain baseline serum sodium
Side/adverse effects of SSRI's continued... SEROTONIN SYNDROME: agitation, confusion, disorientation, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, hallucinations, hyperreflexia, fever, diaphoresis, incoordination, tremors (2-72 hours after start of treatment)
Side/adverse effects of SSRI's continued... Bruxism: grinding and clenching of teeth Withdrawal Syndrome: nausea, sensory disturbances, anxiety, tremor, malaise, unease
Contraindications for SSRI's Contraindicated in clients taking MAOIs Avoid alcohol Use cautiously in clients with liver and renal dysfunction, seizure disorders, or a history of GI bleeding
Interactions with SSRI's Concurrent use of MAOIs or tricyclic antidepressants can cause serotonin syndrome
Nursing administration with SSRI's Take the medication in the morning. Therapeutic effects may not be experienced for 1-3 weeks
Created by: j_bressette