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Anatomy Chpt. 8

What are the 5 special senses? Sight, Hearing, Equilibrium, Smell, and Taste.
What are the structures of the eye? Eyelids, Conjunctiva, Extrinsic eye muscle, Lacrimal apparatus.
Eyelids shields eye and secretes oily substance from the tarsal glands.
Conjunctiva Membrane that covers front of eye and secretes mucus to lubricate eye.
Extrinsic Eye Muscle Move eyes
Lacrimal Apparatus Secretes saline solution and lysozyme (enzyme that kills bacteria)
3 Tunics that make up side of the eyeball Sclera, Vascular, Retina
Sclera (1 of 3 tunics) outermost layer, and makes eye white
Vascular Tunic (1 of 3 tunics) Middle layer, and has 3 parts:The choroid-back of the eye; Ciliary Body-muscles that attach to lens; Iris-contracts/expands to admit light through the pupil.
Retina (1 of 3 tunics) Innermost layer-contains photoreceptors (rods and cones that respond to light)
The eyeball is filled with Fluid
What are the two humors and where are they found? Aqueous Humor (fluid is anterior to the lens) and Vitreous Humor (fluid is posterior to the lens)
What focuses the light The lens of the eye
Distant light Does not require the lens to bend
Closer light Does require the lens to bend
Photoreceptors Respond to light and send impulses to the brain for interpretation.
Cones Interpret colors
Rods Interpret greys and provide peripheral vision.
What travel along the optic nerve? Impulses
Eye Reflexes Photopupillary Reflex and Accommodation Pupillary Reflex.
Photopupillary Reflex Iris contracts pupils to prevent damage to photoreceptors.
Accommodation Pupillary Reflex Isis contracts pupil to view close objects (Allows more acute vision)
Chemoreceptors (Smell) Are receptors for smell and taste (They respond to chemicals in solution)
Olfactory Receptors in the roof of nasal cavities detect? Smells
Olfactory Hair (Cilia) on Olfactory Receptor cell are stimulated by? (Smell) Chemicals dissolved in mucus.
Impulses travel along the olfactory filaments to the? (Smell) Olfactory Nerve
Smell is closely tied to? (Smell) The Limbic System (emotional part of the brain)
Olfactory receptors adapt to (Smell) Unchanging stimuli (Why you don't smell your own B.O.
Tongue is covered in. Small peg-like projections called Papillae.
What is along the side of the papillae (Tastes) Taste Buds
What responds to chemicals in saliva? (Tastes) Gustatory Cells
Gustatory Hairs (Cilia)do what? (Tastes) Detect taste and send impulses to the brain on the facial glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves.
What are the Taste Sensations? (5) Sweet, Sour, Bitter, Salty, and Umami
Sweet Responds to sugars (Hydroxl group OH-)
Sour Responds to acids (Hydroxl group H+)
Bitter Responds to alkoids
Salty Responds to metal ions in solution
Umami responds to glutamete (amino acids)-means delicious in Japanese.
What is taste influenced by? Smell and texture of foods.
Structure of the Ear Outer Ear, Middle Ear, Inner Ear
Outer Ear is made up of? Pinna, External acoustic Meatus, Tympanic Membrane, and has Sound transmission.
Pinna Shell of ear, funnels sound waves
External Acoustic Meatus Canal sound waves travel through
Tympanic Membrae Ear drum
Middler Ear is made up of Ossicles, Pharyngotympanic tube, and Sound Transmission (only)
Ossicles Transmit vibrations from eardrum to oval window.
Pharyngotympanic Tube Equalizes pressure around the ear drum
Inner is composed of Bony chambers in the temporal bone lined with membranes filled with perilymph fluid.
Chambers include: Cochlea, Vestibule, Semicircular Canal
Hearing Receptors are located where? In the membrane of the cochlea.
Cells in the Cochlea are stimulated by? Sound waves.
Deafness Is any degree of hearing loss
Conduction Deafness Cannot transmit vibrations through external and middle ear
Sensorineural Deafness Damage to the nervous system structures that deal with hearing
Symptoms of Equilibrium problems Rolling eyes (involuntary), Nausea, Vertigo, Unable to stand straight.
Created by: Beth12