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AnatFinal Study Key3

connective tissue covering a fascicle perimysium
runs the entire length of the thick filament A band
type of contraction that lengthens a muscle eccentric
_ muscle pain myalgia
any rigid bar free to turn about a fixed point lever
_ fulcrum lies between the pull and the load; seesaw-like 1st class lever
chewing mastication
white line in the midline of the abdominal muscles linea alba
makes up 55% of whole blood plasma
contains granules that stain orange and nucleus has two lobes eosinophil
formation of platelets thrombopoiesis
blood clotting coagulation
valve between the right ventricle and aorta aortic
represents depolarization of the atria P wave
slow heart rhythm bradycardia
high blood pressure hypertension
causes blood to pass through two consecutive capillary beds rather than one portal system
vasodilator nitric oxide
_alternate expansion and recoil of an artery pulse
stroke erythropoiesis
The bundle of collagen fibers at the end of a skeletal muscle that attaches the muscle to bone is called a tendon.
The action potential is conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by transverse tubules.
Active sites on the actin become available for binding after calcium binds to troponin.
Calcium ion is not released from the transverse tubule.
Perpendicular is not one of the forms of fascicle organization found in muscles.
Muscles located entirely within the part it moves are called intrinsic.
The most common lever systems in the body are those that have the applied force between the fulcrum and the load. These are called third-class levers.
Tendon attachment that moves most aptly describes "muscle insertion".
A plasma protein essential for blood coagulation is fibrinogen
Antigens of the surface of red blood cells are also called agglutinogens and antibodies in the blood plasma are also called agglutinins.
Platelets are pinched off from giant multinucleated cells in the bone marrow called megakaryocytes.
A moving blood clot is called an embolus.
The coronary arteries deliver blood to the myocardium.
An increase in the rate of action potentials from baroreceptors will trigger a reflex to both decrease heart rate and decrease pressure.
The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle during a contraction is called the stroke volume.
The atrioventricular valves permit blood flow in one direction only.
Capillaries that have a complete lining are called continuous capillaries.
After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the venules.
Exchange between a blood vessel and the cells that surround it can occur only in capillaries.
Blood moves forward through veins because of muscular compression, valves in the veins preventing the backward flow of blood, the pressure in the veins is lower than in the arteries, and the respiratory pump.
What are the THREE general functions of skeletal muscle? Movement, heat production, posture.
What are the THREE proteins that make up the thin filaments in muscle cells? Actin, troponin, tropomyosin.
What protein makes up the thick filament in muscle cells? myosin
What are the FOUR different types of muscle contractions? Twitch, treppe, complete tetanus, incomplete tetanus.
Define myopathy. Muscle disorder that disrupts normal movement
Define origin and insertion origin: point of attachment that does not move. insertion: point of attachment that moves
What are the FOUR different muscle actions? Prime mover (agonist, antagonist, synergist, fixator
List the TWO divisions of the muscular system and what each controls. Axial: position head and spinal column; moves rib cage. appendicular: support pectoral and pelvic girdles and limbs
Define tonicity in regards to muscles. Tension; continuous, low level of sustained contraction.
List ONE effect of poor posture. Muscles work harder and fatique easier; strains ligaments and bones; interferes with other functions (respiration, digestion)
Describe the structure of hemoglobin. 4 globin molecules with a heme group (that contains iron) in the center of each.
What formed element is shaped like a biconcave disk and has no nucleus or organelles? RBCs
What occurs when a person with type A blood is given type O blood from a donor? Nothing; transfusion is successful.
What occurs when a person with type B blood is given type AB blood from a donor? Transfusion reaction
What occurs when a person with type AB blood is given type B blood from a donor? Nothing; transfusion is successful
What are the TWO ways in which a person can develop Rh antibodies? Rh- mother carries Rh+ baby. Rh- person transfused with Rh+ blood
What is ONE condition that opposes clotting? Smooth endothelium, antithrombins, heparin, coumarin compounds
What is ONE condition that hastens clotting? Rough spot in endothelium, slow blood flow
Define fibrinolysis. Clot dissolution
What are the FOUR structures that make up the conduction system of the heart? Sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, AV bundle (bundle of His), subendocardial branches (purkinje fibers)
What causes the two heart sounds? 1st: contraction of the ventricles, 2nd: vibrations of SL valves closing
List the TWO factors that influence arterial volume and pressure. Cardiac output (CO), peripheral resistance
How is cardiac output calculated? Stroke volume x heart rate
What are the THREE different types of arteries? Elastic arteries, muscular arteries,arterioles.
What are the THREE structural layers of blood vessels? Tunica externa, tunica media, tunica intima.
Define peripheral resistance. Resistance to blood flow by the force of friction between blood and the walls of its vessels.
Describe how the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) mechanism affects blood volume .ADH increases the amount of water the kidneys resorb from urine before it is excreted so blood volume increases.
What is “normal” healthy blood pressure? 120/80