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Anatom I final key 1

study of the structure and organization of the human body anatomy
Anatomy moving nutrients through the wall of the digestive tract to be taken to cells Efferent.
cuts the body lengthwise from side to side: Coronal plane
heavy, rounded physique: endomorph
disease is native to a region endemic
formed by transfer of electrons ionic bond
ions with a positive charge cations
“reservoirs” for H+ ions cations
amino acids that cannot be produced by the human body essential
have the following nucleotides: G, C, A, and T DNA
elevated levels of CO2 hypercapnia
“little organs” organelles
DNA in non-dividing cells chromatin
“spot welds” that hold adjacent cells together desmosomes
solution with higher potential osmotic pressure hypertonic
reduces activation energy needed to start a reaction catalyst
does not require O2 anaerobic
The correct order from the most complex to the simplest is organism, system, organ, tissue, cellular, molecular.
Which skeletal system provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage, and blood formation? skeletal muscle
The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment in an organism is termed: homeostasis.
Abdominopelvic regions right hypochondriac, right inguinal region, left lumbar, left hypochondriac.
The right hypochondriac, right inguinal region, left lumbar, left hypochondriac are all abdominopelvic regions.
The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the thoracic and abdominopelvic.
Visceral pericardium is located on the heart itself.
The weakest bond between two atoms is the hydrogen bond.
AB → A + B is to decomposition.
A + B → AB is to synthesis.
Carbohydrates are not an example of an inorganic compound.
A base removes what kind of ions? hydrogen ions.
an acid releases what kind of ions? hydrogen ions.
When two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration synthesis a disaccharide is formed.
An amino acid is to a protein as a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes.
The Golgi apparatus does not sends what to the RER? transport vesicles to the Rough Endoplasmioc Reticulum.
Diffusion of a substance across the cell membrane is not influenced by hydrolysis of ATP.
The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called endocytosis.
A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates phagocytosis.
In order to maintain cellular homeostasis, what does a exchange pump do? one particular exchange pump ejects sodium ions from the cell and imports potassium ions.
The mouth is ______ to the chin. The mouth is ____to the nose. 1. superior_ 2. _inferior_
The knee lies at the ¬¬_____end of the lower leg. The ankle lies at the ____of the lower leg. _proximal_ 2. _distal_
The thumb is ¬¬¬¬____to the middle finger. The little finger is ____ to the middle finger. 1. _lateral_. 2. _medial
List the FOUR major types of tissues found in the human body 1. Epithelial. 2. Connective. 3. Muscle. 4. nervous
What are the FOUR basic components of homeostatic control mechanisms? sensor mechanism, integration or control center, effector, feedback.
Give an example of a negative feedback control system: air conditioner or body heat production (there are other acceptable answers).
Give an example of a positive feedback control system child birth or blood clotting (there are other acceptable answers).
List the THREE levels of control seen throughout the body intracellular, intrinsic, extrinsic.
Explain the difference between signs and symptoms. signs: objective; can be measured by someone else. symptoms: can only be felt by patient; subjective.
What are the FOUR elements that make up 96% of all material in the human body? carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen.
What are the THREE parts of an atom? Protons, neutrons, electrons.
List the THREE important properties of water discussed in lecture. efficient solvent/it is polar, high specific heat, high heat of vaporization.
What is a neutralization reaction? Give an example. reaction between an acid and a base. HCl + NaOH (arrow) NaCl + H2O.
Explain the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. saturated: all available bonds are filled. Unsaturated: contains 1 or more double bonds.
What are the four levels of protein structure? Describe each level. Primary: number, kind, and sequence of amino acids. SEcondary: amino acid chain, coiled or bent. Tertiary: structure folded into a globular shape. quarternary: more than 1 polypeptide 3° structure link together.
Describe the structure of plasma membranes and how they are held together. phospholipid bilayer: hydrophilic heads face outward and hydrophobic tails face inward. Held together by chemical attractions.
What is the function of ribosomes? protein synthesis.
What is the function of lysosomes? “digestive bag” or “garbage disposal.”
What is the function of proteasomes? “protein destroyer”
Describe the structure of a mitochondrion. Where does ATP synthesis takes place? 2 membranes; inner membrane folded into cristae. ATP synthesis occurs on inner, folded membrane.
What are the THREE cell fibers that make up the cytoskeleton? Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules.
List the TWO different types of membrane transport and explain the difference between the two. passive: does not require cell energy. active: DOES require cell energy.
What would happen if red blood cells were put into a hypertonic solution? cells will shrivel.
What would happen if red blood cells were put into a hypotonic solution? cells will swell
What are the TWO different forms of endocytosis? phagocytosis, pinocytosis.
What are the THREE chemical pathways that are involved in cellular respiration? glycolysis, citric acid cycle (Kreb’s cycle), electron transport system (ETS).