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PSYB51 ch.12


Kinesthesis perception of the position & movement of our limbs in space
Proprioception perception mediated by kinesthetic & vestibular receptors
Somatosensation collective term for sensory signals frm the body
Epidermis outer of 2 major layers of skin
Dermis inner of 2 major layers of skin, consisting of nutritive & connective tissues, w/in which lie the mechanoreceptors
Mechanoreceptors sensory receptors that are responsive to mechanical stimulation (pressure, vibration, & movement)
Meissner corpuscle specialized nerve ending associated w/fast-adapting (FA 1) fibers that have small receptive fields
Merkel cell neurite complex specialized nerve ending assoc. w/slow-adapting (SA 1) fibers that have small receptive fields
Pacinian corpuscle specialized nerve endind assoc. w/fast-adapting (FA 2) fibers that have large receptive fields
Ruffini ending specialized nerve ending assoc. w/slow-adapting (SA 2) fibers that have large receptive fields
Kinesthetic referring to perception involving sensory mechanoreceptors in muscles, tendons, & joints
Muscle spindle sensory receptor located in a muscle that senses its tension
Thermoreceptors sensory receptors that signal info. abt changes in skin temperature
Warmth fiber sensory nerve fiber that fires when skin temp. increases
Cold fiber sensory nerve fiber that fires when skin temp. decreases
Nocioreceptors sensory receptors that transmit info. abt noxious (painful) stimulation that causes damage or potential damage to the skin
A-delta fiber intermediate-sized, myelinated sensory nerve fiber that transmits pain and temp. signals
C-fiber narrow-diameter, unmyelinated sensory nerve fiber that transmits pain and temp. signals
Spinothalamic pathway route from the spinal cord to the brain that carries most of the info. abt skin temp. and pain
Dorsal column-medial lemniscal (DCML) pathway route frm the spinal cord to the brain that carries signals frm skin, muscles, tendons, & joints
Somatosensory area 1(S1) primary receiving area for touch in the cortex; located in the parietal lobe
Somatosensory area 2 (S2) secondary receiving area for touch in the cortex; located in the upper bank of lateral sulcus & other cortical areas
Somatotopic spatially mapped in the somatosensory cortex in correspondence to spatial events in the skin
Homunculus maplike representation of regions of the body in the brain
Phantom limb sensation perceived frm a physically amputated limb of the body
Neural plasticity ability of neural circuits to undergo changes in function or organization as a result of previous activity
Substantia gelatinosa jellylike region of interconnecting neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord
Dorsal horn region @ the rear of the spinal cord that received input frm receptors in the skin
Gate control theory description of the system that transmits pain that incorporates modulating signals frm the brain
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) region of the brain assoc. with the perceived unpleasantness of a pain sensation
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) region of the brain concerned w/cognitive and executive control
Analgesia decreasing pain sensation during conscious experience
Endogenous opiates chemicals released by the body that block the release or uptake of neurotransmitters necessary to transmit pain sensation to the brain
Hyperalgesia increased on heightened response to a normally painful stimulus
Two-point threshold min. distance @ which 2 stimuli (eg. 2 simultaneous touches) are just perceptible as separate
Haptic perception knowledge of the world that is derived frm sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, tendons, & joints, usually involving active exploration
Exploratory procedure stereotyped hand movement patterns used to contact objects in order to perceive their properties; each exploratory procedure is best for determining 1(or more) object properties
Tactile agnosia inability to identify objects by touch
Frame of reference coordinate system used to define locations in space
Egocenter center of reference frame used to represent locations relative to the body
Body image the impression of our bodies in space
Endogenous spatial attention; form of top-down control (knowledge-driven) of spatial attn spatial attn. in which attn. is voluntarily directed toward the site where the observer anticipates a stimulus will occur
Exogenous spatial attention; form of bottom-up (stimulus-driven) spatial attn. in which attn. is reflexively directed toward the site @ which a stimulus has abruptly appeared
Tadoma method by which those who are both deaf & blind can perceive speech in real time using their hands
Virtual haptic environment synthetic world that may be experienced haptically by operation of an electromechanical device that delivers forces to the hand of the user
Touch term used to refer to the sensations caused by mechanical displacements of the skin. These displacements occur any time you grasp, wield, or make contact w/an object
Tactile (adj. for touch) refer to mechanical interactions when talking about touch and encompassing perception of temp. changes (thermal sensation), itchiness, & internal sensations (body in space)
Eyes & ears can perceive signals frm objects that are far frm the body, but we must almost always be in direct contact w/an object to perceive it by touch
Human sense of touch located in the skin
How touch receptors function 1. Type of stimulation (s/a diff. stimulus events) to which the receptor responds; 2. Size of RF; size of RF refers to the extent of the body area that elicits receptor response; 3. Rate of adaptation (fast vs. slow)
Fast-adapting receptors (FA 1 & 2) responds to bursts of APs, 1st when its preferred stimulus its preferred stimulus is applied & then again. Doesn’t respond during the steady state b/w stimulus onset & offset
Slow-adapting receptors (SA 1&2) remains active throughout the period during which the stimulus is in contact w/its receptive field (RF)
Tactile receptor consists of a nerve fiber & an assoc. expanded ending. These receptors fall under the category of A-beta fibers: wide diameters that permit very fast neural conduction
Meissner corpuscle located @ the junction of the epidermis & dermis; and is FA type 1
Merkel cell neurite complex located @ the junction of the epidermis & dermis; and is SA type 1
Pacinian corpuscle embedded in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue; and is FA type 2
Ruffini endings embedded in the dermis & subcutaneous tissue; & is SA type 2
SA 1 sustained pressure, very low frequency (<~5Hz); texture perception. Also spatial deformation which is helpful in pattern/form detection
FA 1 temporal changes in skin deformation (~5-50 Hz); low frequency vibration detection
FA 2 temporal changes in skin deformation (~50-700 Hz); high frequency vibration detection
SA 2 sustained downward pressure, lateral skin stretch, skin slip (low sensitivity to vibration across frequencies); finger position & stable grasp
Thermoreceptors normal internal body temp. is b/w 30-36 degrees Celsius. Also respond to objects in the environment and warm or cold fibers fire accordingly
Nocioreceptors have bare nerve endings & respond to various forms of tissue damage or to stimuli that have the potential to damage tissue (incl. extreme skin temps. Lower than 15 degrees or higher than 45 degrees Celsius). A- delta fibers & C fibers
Painful events occur in 2 stages (1) quick sharp burst of pain (2) throbbing sensation; reflect the onset of signals 1st frm A-delta fibers & then frm C-fibers
Spinothalamic pathway slower; carries most of info. frm thermoreceptors & nociceptors. A lot of synapses w/in spinal cord which slows conduction while providing a mechanism for inhibiting pain pain perception when necessary
Dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway (DCML) incl. wider diameter axons & fewer synapses & conveys info. more quickly to the brain. Tactile & kinesthetic info. carried through this pathway; used for planning & executing rapid movements when quick feedback is a must
Phantom limb; Vilayanur Ramachandran’s research amputees often feel sensations in their phantoms arms & hands when their faces or remaining limbs are touched. Idiosyncrasy in homunculus
Hand & arms areas of S1“invaded” by neurons carrying info. frm touch receptors in the face Other parts of the brain listening to hand & arms areas are not fully aware of altered connections & therefore attribute activity in these areas to the stimulation frm the missing limb
“What” system the ability to recognize objects through touch
“Where” detection of spatial orientation/deformation abilities
Gate control theory bottom-up pain signals frm nociceptors can be blocked via a feedback circuit located in dorsal horn. As gate neurons send excitatory signals sensory info. is allowed to go in but inhibitory signals frm the gate neurons cancel transmission to the brain
ACC processes the raw sensory data frm S1 and S2 in such a way as to produce an emotional response
Secondary pain affect emotional response assoc. w/long-term suffering that occurs when painful events are imagined or remembered
Created by: Ugly.Beauty
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