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Exam # 3 Review

Chapters 14,15,16,17 & 20

QuestionAnswer
Pathogenicity The ability to cause disease
Virulence The extent of pathogenicity.
What are the portals of entry? 1.) Mucous membranes (respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, conjunctiva) 2.) Skin 3.) Parenteral route (cuts, bites,injections).
What are the portals of exit? Respiratory tract (coughing & sneezing), Gastrointestinal tract (feces & saliva), Genitourinary tract (urine, vaginal secretions), skin, & blood (biting arthropods & needles/syringes).
What is ID50? Infectious dose for 50% of the test population.
What is LD50? Lethal dose (of toxin) for 50% of the test population.
What is adherence? When adhesion's/ligands bind to receptors on host cells. Can be glycoproteins or lipoproteins & are frequently associated with fimbriae. Biofilms provide attachment & resistance to antimicrobial agents.
What is coagulase? The coagulation of blood.
What is antigenic variation? Alters the surface of proteins.
Toxin Substances that contribute to pathogenicity. They can be endotoxins or exotoxins.
Toxigenicity The ability to produce toxins.
Toxemia The presence of toxin in the host's blood.
Toxoid An inactivated toxin used in a vaccine.
Antitoxin Antibodies against a specific toxin.
Endotoxin Source: Gram (-) bacteria, Chemistry: Lipid, & Can it be Neutralized by an antitoxin? NO.
Exotoxin Source: Mostly Gram (+) bacteria, Chemistry: Protein, & Can it be Neutralized by an antitoxin? YES
Cytopathic effects of Viruses? Stopping mitosis, lysis, formation, of inclusion bodies, cell fusion, antigenic changes, chromosomal changes, & transformation.
Pathogenic properties of Fungi? Fungal waste products may cause symptoms. Chronic infections provoke an allergic response. Tichothecane toxins inhibit protein synthesis. Capsules prevent phagocytosis. Ergot toxin.
Pathogenic properties of Protozoa? Some change their surface antigens while growing in a host, thus avoiding destruction by the host's antibodies.
Pathogenic properties of Algae? Neurotoxins produced by dinoflagellates. Produce neurotoxins that cause paralysis when ingested by humans, shellfish paralysis.
What are the symptoms of Helminths and Protozoa diseases? Diseases can be caused by damage to host tissue or by the metabolic waste products of the parasite.
Innate Immunity (Non-specific immunity) Refers to all body defenses that protects the body against any kind of pathogen.
Adaptive Immunity (Specific immunity) Refers to defenses (antibodies) against specific microorgansisms.
What is susceptibility? The lack of resistance to a disease.
What is resistance? Ability to ward of diseases.
What is Non-specific resistance? Defenses against any pathogen.
What is specific resistance? Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen.
Innate Immunity (Non-specific immunity) Refers to all body defenses that protects the body against any kind of pathogen.
Adaptive Immunity (Specific immunity) Refers to defenses (antibodies) against specific microorgansisms.
What is susceptibility? The lack of resistance to a disease.
What is resistance? Ability to ward of diseases.
What is Non-specific resistance? Defenses against any pathogen.
What is specific resistance? Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen.
First line of defense (non-specific) Intact skin, mucous membranes and their secretions, & normal microbiota.
Second line of defense (non-specific) Phagocytic white blood cells, inflammation, fever, & antimicrobial substances.
Third line of defense (specific) Specialized lymphocytes: B cells & T cells, antibodies.
Mechanical factors Skin & mucous membranes. Ciliary escalator: microbes trapped in mucous are transported away from the lungs, Lacrimal apparatus: washes eye, Saliva: washes microbes off, Urine: flows out, & Vaginal secretions: flow out.
Chemical factors Sebum, low pH (3-5) of skin, Lysozyme in perspiration, tears, saliva, & tissue fluids, low pH (1.2-3.0) of gastric juice, Transferrins in blood find iron & make it unavailable to bacteria.
What are the types of white blood cells? Neutrophils: phagocytic, Basophils: produce histamine, Eosinophils: toxic to parasites, some phagocytosis, Monocytes: phagocytic as mature macrophages, Lymphocytes: involved in specific immunity ( B & T cells).
What is inflammation? A bodily response to cell damage; it is characterized by redness, pain, heat, swelling, & sometimes the loss of function.
What is edema? An abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid in body parts or tissues, causing swelling.
What is vasodilation? Vasodilation or enlargement of blood vessels. The release of histamine, kinks, & prostaglandins cause vasodilation & increased permeability of blood vessels.
What is margination? Phagocytes have the ability to stick to the lining of the blood vessels.
What is emigration?
Fever An abnormally high body temperature produced in response to a bacterial or viral infection. A chill indicates a rising body temperature; crisis ( sweating) indicates that the body's temperature is falling.
The Compliment system Consist of a group of serum proteins that activate in a cascade that work with one another to destroy invading microorgansisms. Activated via the classical pathway, the alternative pathway, & the lectin pathway.
What is the classical pathway (1)? Antibodies attach
What is the alternative pathway (2)? Complement factors attach.
What is the lectin pathway (3)? Macrophages stimulate liver to release lectin which can attach & start cascade.
Complement system & cascade? The complement system is not adaptable & does not change over the course of a lifetime; so it belongs to the innate immune system. Complement proteins act in a cascade; that is one reaction triggers another, which in turn triggers another, & so on.
What is an Interferon ( IFN)? Antiviral proteins produced in response to a viral infection. Alpha IFN & Beta IFN cause cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication. Gamma IFN: causes neutrophils and macrophages top phagocytize bacteria.
What is a Differnetial white blood cell count? The number of each kind of leukocyte in a sample of 100 leukocytes. A "typical" healthy patient would have; Neutophils: 60-70%, Basophils: 0.5-1%, Esinophils: 2-4%, Monocytes: 3-8% & Lymphocytes: 20-25%.
What are antimicrobial peptides (APM's)? Inhibit cell wall synthesis; form pores in plasma membranes, resulting in lysis; & destroy DNA & RNA. Produced by nearly all plants & animals, & bacterial resistance to AMP's has not yet been seen.
Adaptive/aquired Immunity Specific antibody & lymphocyte response to an antigen (aquired).
What is an Antigen (Ag)? A substance that causes the body to produce specific antibodies or sensitized T cells.
What is a Antibody (Ab)? Proteins made in response to an antigen.
What is Serology? The study of reactions between antibodies and antigens.
Humoral Immunity Involves antibodies, which are found in serum & lymph & are produced by B cells.
Cell-mediated Immunity Involves T cells.
Aquired Immunity Developed during an individual's lifetime (not born with it).
What is Naturally aquired active immunity? Resulting from infection.
What is Naturally aquired passive immunity? Aquired via transplacental or via colostrum (from breast milk).
What is Artifically aquired active immunity? An injection of Ag (antigen) vaccination.
What is Artifically aquired passive immunity? An injection of Ab (antibody).
What is self-tolerance? The body doesn't normally make Antibodies against itself.
What is Clonal deletion? The process of destroying B & T cells that react to self antigens.
What is Clonal selection? Bone marrow gives rise to B cells. Mature B cells migrate to Lymphoid organs. Mature B cells recognize epitopes (from antigens).
Created by: KJones040607