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psyb51 ch.15

Spatial Orientation

Vestibular system set of 5 organs--- 3 semicircular canals & 2 otolith organs--- located in each inner ear that sense head motion and head orientation w/respect to gravity. (Vestibular labyrinth)
Spatial orientation sense comprised of 3 interacting sensory modalities: our senses of linear motion, angular motion, & tilt
Otolith organs mechanical structures in the vestibular system that sense both linear acceleration & gravity
Semicircular canals 3 toroidal tubes in the vestibular system that sense angular motion
Amplitude magnitude of displacement (increase or decrease) of a head movement s/a angular velocity, linear acceleration, & tilt.
Sense of angular motion spatial orientation modality that senses motion resulting from rotation
Sense of linear motion spatial orientation modality that senses translation
Sense of tilt spatial orientation modality that senses head inclination in respect to gravity
Hair cells cells that support the stereocilia that transduce mechanical movement in the vestibular labyrinth into neural activity sent to the brain stem
Mechanoreceptors sensory receptors that are responsive to mechanical stimulation (pressure, vibration, movement)
Receptor potential change in voltage of sensory receptor cells--- hair cells for the vestibular system--- in response to stimulation
Utricle 1 of the 2 otolith organs. Saclike structure that contains the utricular macula
Saccule 1 of the 2 otolith organs. Saclike structure that contains the saccular macula
Maculae specialized detectors of linear acceleration & gravity found in each otolith organ
Otoconia tiny calcium carbonate stones in the ear that provide inertial mass for the otolith organs, enabling them to sense gravity & linear acceleration
Vection illusory sense of self motion produced when you are not moving
Vestibular system; set of specialized sense organs located in the inner ear right next to the cochlea Organs sense motion of the head, as well as the orientation of gravity & make predominant contribution to sense of tilt and sense of self-motion. Contributes to clear vision & maintain balance when we move
Vestibular sensation dizziness, spatial disorientation, imbalance, blurred vision, &/or illusory self-motion when problems arise
Sensing linear motion, angular motion, & tilt (3 modalities) requires diff. receptors &/or diff. stimulation energy as vision and audition do
Vestibular transduces 3 stimulation energies gravity, angular acceleration, & linear acceleration
Signals frm the otolith organs are ambiguous b/c they transduce both linear acceleration & relative orientation of gravity into a neural signal (reliance on the brain and not the otolith organs to tell the diff. b/w gravity and linear acceleration)
Direction perceived linear motion might be forward, up, & to the left
Amplitude speed of our perceived motion can be large or small (see definition)
Angular motion eg close eyes and nod head as if saying no (left to right)
Relatively pure linear motion cannot be done passively but riding in a car or train. Eg. passenger in a car, perceive motion as car reverses (backward linear motion), cessation of translation as car stops, and then forward translation as car moves forward
Sense of tilt eg. close your eyes and nod as if saying yes (up and down). Pitch head forward & hold it there for few seconds; then pitch head backwards & hold it there
Direction x-axis: points forward; y-axis points out to the left ear; & z-axis always points outs the top of the head
Roll directional quality;
Pitch directional quality
Yaw directional quality
Vestibular labyrinth organs respond primarily to head motion both linear & angular & head tilt in respect to gravity
Each ear has a separate vestibular system and five organs in each
Receptor potential changes in hair cell voltage---are proportional to the bending of the hair cell bundles & control the rate @ which hair cells release neurotransmitter to afferent neurons
Rate of Aps transmitted (in voltage change of hair cells) by afferent neurons increases or decreases following the hair cell receptor potential
Semicircular canals are maximally sensitive to rotations in in diff. planes yielding part of the direction coding for head rotation
Created by: Ugly.Beauty
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