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anatomy final1

List the 5 special senses Olfaction Gustation Vision Equilibrium Hearing
Requirement for olfactory receptors to be stimulated: only water soluble & lipid soluble
Odorants: chemicals that stimulate olfactory receptors
filiform (thread) papillae: provide friction; helps move objects around in the mouth; no taste buds.
Fungifarm (fungus)papillae: contains about 5 taste buds
Circumvallate (around + wall) papillae: large; may have 100 taste buds; occur in a “V” near the posterior margin of the tongue.
Tarsal glands (Meibomian): unusually large sebaceous glands; secrete a lipid richproducts that keep the eyelids from sticking together
Chalazion; cyst caused by a bacterial infection
Sty; painful localized swelling
Conjunctivia: . epithelium covering theinner surfaces of the eyelids & the outer surface of the eye;
Conjunctivitis; pinkeye
Diabetic retinopathy: develops over years in individuals with diabetes mellitus; results from blockage of small retinal BV followed by excessive growth of abnormal blood vessels that invade the retina & extend into the space between the pigment layer & the inner neural layer.
Cones: provide bright light color vision.
Rods: highly light sensitive; allow vision in dimly lit conditions.
Blind spot: optic disc; origin of the optic nerve; light striking this area goes unnoticed.
Glaucoma: occurs if aqueous humor cannot drain; pressure increases and the Pressure pushes the optic nerve outward, damaging its nerve fibers.
*Cataracts: loss of transparency of the lens; may be caused by injury, radiation,reaction to drugs or a natural consequence of age (senile cataracts).
*Accommodation: focusing on images by changing the shape of the lens to keep the focal length constant.
*Visual acuity: Scotomas: Floaters: *Visual acuity: clarity of vision Scotomas: abnormal blind spots Floaters: small spots that drift across the field of vision
Rhodopsin (visual purple): its derivatives are the visual pigments;visual pigment found in rods; consists of opsin (protein) bound to retinal (synthesized from VitaminA).
Night blindness: when the dim light proves insufficient to activitate the rods.
Dark adapted (when the visual pigments have recovered from photobleaching) & light adapted state (when the rate of bleaching is balanced by the rate at which visual pigments re-form)
Circadian Rhythm: visual information received by the pineal gland that is used to establish a daily pattern tied to the day-night cycle
Equilibrium sensations: originate within the inner ear Inform us of the position of the head in space by monitoring gravity, linear acceleration, & rotation.
Hearing: involves the detection & interpretation of sound waves.Enables us to detect & interpret sound waves.
Motion sickness: suggestions for causes include that when central processing centers receive conflicting sensory information.
Inner ear: has receptors that provide equilibrium & hearing.
Conductive deafness: results from conditions in the outer or middle ear that blocks the transfer of vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.
Nystagmus: abnormal eye movements that may appear after damage to the brain stem or inner ear.
Thin Skin: Thick skin: covers most of the body occurs on the palms of the hands & soles of the feet; has a 5th layer(stratum lucidium)
dendritic (Langerhans cells)which participate in the immune response.
(insensible perspiration; sensible perspiration is produced by sweat glands).
Insensible perspiration: when water from interstitial fluids that slowly penetrates to the surface & evaporates into surrounding air.
Blisters: occur if there is damage to the epidermis; breaks connections between the superficial layers and deep layers of the epidermis and fluid from insensible perspiration collects.
*Xerosis: excessively dry skin caused by severe burns.
Malignant melanoma: skin cancer.
Lentigos: similar to freckles but have regular borders and contain abnormal melanocytes; senile lentigos (liver spots) develop in older individuals.
Melanin:. brown, yellow brown or black pigment produced by melanocytes
Freckles: caused by localized differences in the rates of melanin production; freckles are small pigmented areas on relatively paler skin.
Melanin protects your skin from UV exposure.
Basal cell carcinoma: most common; originates in stratum germinativum; usually due Chronic UV exposure; metastasis seldom occurs in squamous Cell carcinomoas & virtually never in basal cell carcinomonas
Malignant melanomas: extremely dangerous; cancerous melanocytes grow rapidly & Metastasize through the lymphoid system; early diagnosis is Essential to a good survival rate; examine your skin regularly Using ABCD; asymmetry, border, color, diameter; use Sunblocks.
Rickets: caused by Vitamin D deficiency; results in the bending of abnormally weak & Flexible bones under the weight of the body.
Dermatitis: inflammation of the skin primarily the papillary layer; may produce An itch (poison ivy) or painful & spreading across the entire integument.
Ulcers: localized shedding of an epithelium;
Necrosis (cell death) may occur with inadequate blood flow.
decubitis ulcers (bedsores) result from Restricted circulation such as when splint, cast or lying in bed continuously Compresses superficial blood vessels.
Merkel cells: sensory terminals (tactile discs) monitor these cells.
Vellus hairs: peach fuzz” hairs located over much of the body.
Terminal hairs: heavy more deeply pigmented & sometimes Curly; hair on your head, including eyebrows & eyelashes
Apocrine glands: produce a sticky, cloudy, potentially odorous Secretion; found in the armpits, around the Nipples, & the pubic region.
Merocrine (eccrine) sweat glands: more numerous, smaller & More widely distributed; found in most Abundance on the palms & soles; produce Sensible perspiration.
Third degree: full thickness burns; destroys epidermis and dermis
Sepsis: dangerous, widespread bacterial infection; leading cause of death in burn patients.
Nails: keratinized epidermal cells that protect the tips of fingers & toes.
Keloid: areas of raised fibrous scar tissue
General Senses: provide information about the body & the environment; used to describe our sensitivity to temperature, pain, touch, pressure, vibration & proprioception
Special Senses: olfaction (smell), vision (sight), gustation (taste), equilibrium (balance), & hearing
Somatic Motor Pathways: consist of motor nuclei, tracts & nerves.
Sensory Pathways: the nerves, nuclei, & tracts that deliver somatic & visceral sensory information to their final destinations inside the CNS.
Sensory Receptors: specialized cells that monitor specific conditions in the body or the external environment
Perception: conscious awareness of a sensation.
Nociceptors: pain receptors; especially common in the superficial portions of the skin, in joint capsules, within the periosteal of bones & around the walls of blood vessels.
Mechanoreceptors: sensitive to stimuli that distort their plasma membrane; contain mechanically gated ion channels; these gates open in response to stretching, compression, twisting or other distortions of the membrane.
Somatic Sensory Pathways: carry sensory information from the skin & musculature of the body wall, head, neck & limbs
Spinothalmic Pathway: carries sensations of poorly localized touch, pressure, pain, & Temperature
Referred Pain: pain felt in an uninjured part of the body when the pain actually originates at another location.
Posterior Column Pathway: carries sensations of precise touch & vibrations, & proprioception
**Decussation: crossing of an axon from the left side to the right side or from the right side to the left side.
Medial lemniscus: tract entered once an axon has crossed to the other side.
Spinocerebellar Pathway: conveys information about muscle, tendon & joint positions from the spine to the cerebellum.
Corticospinal Pathway: (pyramidal system); provides voluntary control over skeletal muscles; begins at the pyramidal cells of the primary motor cortex.
Cerebral Palsy: affect voluntary motor performance; appear during infancy or childhood & persist throughout the life of the affected individual; premature or unusually stressful birth, exposure to drugs a genetic defect improper development of motor pathways.
Extrapyramidal System: centers in the cerebrum, diencephalon, & brain stem that may issue motor commands as a result of processing performed at a subconscious level.
The Basal Nuclei: Provide background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities.
Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig’s disease); progressive, degenerative disorder that affects motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem & cerebral hemispheres; causes atrophy of the associated skeletal muscles; affects both upper & lower motor neurons.
Cerebellum: monitors proprioceptive 9position) sensations, visual information from the eyes, & vestibular (balance) sensations from the internal ear as movements are under way.
Anencephaly: rare condition in which the brain fails to develop at levels above the midbrain or lower diencephalon.
Autonomic Nervous System
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Herniated disc
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Sliding filament theory
Blood brain barrier
Created by: katie.nelson8