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DHS Cells unit

DHS Cells Nat.5

DefinitionWord/Phrase
The basic unit of all living things. Cells
Structure which controls the cells functions. Nucleus
Structure which controls what enters and exits the cell. Cell Membrane
The site of chemical reactions inside the cell. Cytoplasm
Structure which contains chlorophyll to capture light energy for photosynthesis. Chloroplasts
Structure which contains cell sap. Vacuole
Structure which provides strength and support to plant cells. Cell wall
The movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Diffusion
A plant cell that is hard and supportive. Turgid
A plant cell that has lost water from its vacuole and so the contents of the cell have moved away from the cell wall. Plasmolysed
The movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Osmosis
The area of the enzyme that binds to its substrate. Active site
The Enzyme which converts Starch to Maltose. Amylase
Enzyme which converts Hydrogen Peroxide to Water and Oxygen. Catalase
An enzyme that has had its active site irreversibly damaged by high temperatures or extreme pH. Denatured
Enzyme which converts Glucose-1-phosphate into Starch. Starch phosphorylase
A substance which speeds up a chemical reaction without being changed in the process. Enzyme
The substance an enzyme reacts with. Substrate
The substance/s formed by an enzyme reaction. Product(s)
The word used to describe the property of an enzyme that only allows it to react with one substrate. Specific
An enzyme reaction in which small molecules are used to build large molecules. Synthesis
The conditions in which an enzyme will react best/ fastest. Optimum
The chemical reaction used by cells to make energy, from glucose, when oxygen is present. Aerobic Respiration
The word used to describe a soft unsupportive plant cell Flaccid
Describes what happens to an animal cell that is placed in pure/distilled water. The cell bursts.
Describes what happens to an animal cell which is placed in a concentrated salt solution. The cell shrinks.
An enzyme reaction in which large molecules are broken down into small molecules. Degradation
The term used to describe the difference in concentration between the solutions on the inside and on the outside of a cell. Concentration gradient
The movement of a substance from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration Active Transport
The cell structures that are involved in making energy for the cell. Mitochondria
The high energy molecule that is made by Respiration. ATP
The ring of DNA found in bacterial cells. Plasmid
The cell structure in the cytoplasm involved in protein synthesis. Ribosomes
The chemical reaction used by cells to make energy, from glucose, when oxygen is not present. Anaerobic respiration
The name of the first stage in Aerobic respiration. Glycolysis
This substance is found in the cell wall of plant cells but not in the cell walls of fungal or bacterial cells. Cellulose
During Glycolysis, glucose is broken down into this substance. Pyruvate
This number of ATP molecules are formed during Glycolysis. 2
This number of ATP molecules are formed during the second reaction of aerobic respiration. 36
This is the total number of ATP molecules formed during aerobic respiration. 38
This is the total number of ATP molecules formed during anaerobic respiration. 2
The first stage of aerobic and anaerobic respiration occurs in this part of the cell. Cytoplasm
The second stage of aerobic respiration occurs in this part of the cell. Mitochondrion/Mitochondria
During respiration energy is released by the breakdown of this molecule. Glucose
This is the high energy molecule made by respiration. ATP
These 2 substances combine to form ATP. ADP + Pi
When energy is released from an ATP molecule these substances are formed. ADP + Pi
The breakdown of glucose by aerobic respiration can only occur when this substance is available. Oxygen
The breakdown of glucose by anaerobic respiration occurs when this substance is not available. Oxygen
The products of the second reaction in aerobic respiration are...... Carbon dioxide+Water+ ATP
In animals;the product of the second reaction in anaerobic respiration is...... Lactic Acid
In plants and yeast cells; the products of the second reaction in anaerobic respiration are...... Alcohol(ethanol)+ Carbon dioxide
The substrate for the enzyme Amylase. Starch
The product of the enzyme Amylase. Maltose
The substrate for the enzyme Starch phosphorylase. Glucose(-1-phosphate)
The product of the enzyme Starch phosphorylase. Starch
This type of enzyme reaction is carried out by Amylase. Degradation
This type of enzyme reaction is carried out by Starch phosphorylase. Synthesis
The raw materials for photosynthesis are Carbon dioxide and water
Photosynthesis takes place in this structure of a cell. Chloroplast
The first reaction in photosynthesis is called..... Photolysis (Light reaction)
Light energy is absorbed by this substance. found in chloroplasts. Chlorophyll
Light energy is used to split this molecule. Water
In the Light reaction; when the water molecule is split the hydrogen joins to this type of molecule. Hydrogen carrier
In the Light reaction; when the water molecule is split this substances diffuses out of the cell. Oxygen
In the Light reaction; light energy is converted into .............. energy. Chemical
In the Light reaction; The chemical energy made is stored in this high energy molecule. ATP
These 2 substances formed in the light reaction are used in the second reaction of photosynthesis. Hydrogen and ATP
The second reaction in photosynthesis is called........ Carbon fixation
This product is formed by the second reaction of photosynthesis. Glucose
These types of subsatnces are required for the photosynthesis reactions to occur. Enzymes
Temperature is a limiting factor in photsynthesis as it effects the activity of these types of substances required for photosynthesis. Enzymes
The limiting factors for photosynthesis are..... Carbon dioxide concentration, Light intensity, Temperature
The term used to describe a substance that will decrease the rate of a chemical reaction whe they are in short supply. Limiting factor
The process by which genes from an organism are transferred into the genetic information of another organism, of a different species Genetic Engineering / Modification
The structure in a bacterial cell which is removed to be modified. Plasmid
The substance are used in geentic engineering to cut open the plasmid, remove the gene from the source DNA Enzyme
The process of cell division is also known by this term. Mitosis
During the first stage of mitosis; the chromosomes make exact copies of themselves so that each chromosomes is made up of two structures called.... Chromatids
Theses structures pull the chromatids apart. Spindle fibres
Cell division is required by organisms for these 2 processes. Growth and Repair
The term used to describe the processes used to grow one type of cells, without contamination from other cell types. Aseptic Technique
The process by which proteins are formed in a cell. Protein Synthesis
The shape of DNA is decribed as a ...... Double Helix
This molecule contains the genetic code for making proteins. DNA
The structures in the DNA which carry the genetic code to make proteins are called....... Bases
The base A alway pairs with the base...... T
The base C alway pairs with the base...... G
Created by: dhsbiology