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General Pathology

Pathology: General Path

1. Pyknosis 2. Karyorrhexis 3. Karyolysis 1. nuclear shrinkage 2. nuclear fragmentation 3. nuclear dissolution and fading
How are Bax and Bcl-2 related to apoptosis? 1. Bax is pro-apoptotic 2. Bcl-2 is anti-apoptotic
Changes in proportions of anti- and pro-apoptotic factors lead to increased __ permeability and ___ release. 1. mitochondria 2. cytochrome c
What are the two extrinsic pathways of apoptosis? 1. Fas-Ligand 2. Killer T cell release of perforin and Granzyme B
Which necrosis is described? 1. preservation of cell outline, no nuclei 2. bacterial abscess 3. occurs in brain 4. tuberculosis 5. common in limbs 1. coagulative 2. liquefactive 3. liquefactive 4. caseous 5. gangrenous
How does calcium influx lead to irreversile cell injury? calcium activates caspases
Exudate or Transudate 1. Due to ↑ hydrostatic pressure 2. Due to inflammation 3. Due to ↓ oncotic pressure 4. Due to lymphatic obstruction 1. Transudate 2. Exudate 3. Transudate 4. Exudate
Exudate of Transudate 1. protein poor 2. protein rich 3. specific gravity > 1.020 4. specific gravity < 1.020 1. transudate 2. exudate 3. exudate 4. transudate
What is an In situ carcinoma? term for a neoplasm when cells have not yet invaded the basement membrane but encompass the entire thickness of epithelium
1. Increase in cell number 2. replacement of one adult cell type with another 3. abnormal growth with loss of cellular orientation, shape, and size 1. hyperplasia 2. metaplasia 3. dysplasia
1. abnormal cells lacking differentiation 2. uncontrolled clonal proliferation of cells 1. anaplasia 2. neoplasia
What is the difference between tumor grade and stage? 1. grade - degree of cellular differentiation & number of mitoses 2. stage - degree of spread
What is the TNM staging system of tumors? 1. T = tumor size 2. N = node involvement 3. M = metastases
Benign or Malignant? 1. well differentiated 2. poorly differentiated 3. may metastasize 4. erratic growth 5. slow growth 1. benign 2. malignant 3. malignant 4. malignant 5. benign
1. Growth derived from multiple germ layers 2. normal tissue in an abnormal location 3. Mass of disorganized cells indigenous to the particular site 1. Teratoma 2. Choristoma 3. Hamartoma
Neoplasm associated with: 1. Down syndrome 2. Xeroderma pigmentosum 3. Atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia 4. Tuberous sclerosis 1. ALL, AML 2. Melanoma, basal and squamous cell carcinomas 3. Gastric adenocarcinoma 4. Astrocytoma, angiomyolipoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma
Neoplasm associated with: 5. Actinic keratosis 6. Barrett's esophagus 7. Plummer-Vinson syndrome 8. Cirrhosis 5. Squamous cell carcinoma of skin 6. Esophageal adenocarcinoma 7. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus 8. Hepatocellular carcinoma
Neoplasm associated with: 9. Ulcerative colitis 10. Paget's disease of bone 11. Immunodeficiency states 9. Colonic adenocarcinoma 10. osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma 11. Malignant lymphomas
Neoplasm associated with: 13. Autoimmune diseases (Hashimoto's, myasthenia gravis) 14. Acanthosis nigricans 15. Dysplastic nevus 16. Radiation exposure 13. Lymphoma 14. Visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, breast, uterus) 15. Malignant melanoma 16. Sarcoma, papillary thyroid cancer
What tumor is associated with the oncogen? What is the gene product? 1. abl 2. c-myc 3. bcl-2 4. erb-B2 1. CML --- tyrosine kinase 2. Burkitt's lymphoma -- transcription factor 3. Follicular and undifferentiated lymphomas -- anti-apoptotic molecule 4. Breast, ovarian, and gastric carcinomas -- tyrosine kinase
What tumor is associated with the oncogen? What is the gene product? 1. ras 2. L-myc 3. N-myc 4. ret 5. c-kit 1. colon carcinoma -- GTPase 2. lung tumor -- transcription factor 3. neuroblastoma -- transcription factor 4. multiple endocrine neoplasia -- tyrosine kinase 5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor -- cytokine receptor
What tumor is associated with loss of function of the following genes: 1. Rb 2. p53 3. BRCA1 & 2 4. p16 5. APC 1. retinoblastoma 2. many cancers, Li-Fraumeni syndrome 3. breast or ovarian cancer 4. melanoma 5. colorectal cancer (familial adenomatous polyposis)
What tumor is associated with loss of function of the following genes: 1. WTI 2. NF1 & 2 3. DPC 4. DCC 5. hMSH2 1. Wilms' tumor 2. neurofibromatosis type 1 & 2 3. pancreatic cancer 4. colon cancer 5. herediaty nonpolyposis colorectal cancer
What cancers do the following tumor markers screen for? 1. PSA 2. α-fetoprotein 3. TRAP 4. S-100 1. prostate carcinoma 2. hepatocellular carcinoma 3. (tartate-resistant acid phosphatase) Hairy cell leukemia 4. melanoma, neural tumors, astrocytoma
1. Top 3 cancers of men 2. Top 3 cancers of women 1. prostate, lung, colon 2. breast, lung, colon
What is the difference between dystrophic and metastatic calcification? 1. dystrophic is calcification of dying tissues 2.. metastatic is calcification from hypercalcemia
What is the difference between hypoxia and hypoxemia? 1. Hypoxia - inadequate oxygenation of tissue 2. Hypoxemia - decrease in PaO2
1. What does a pulse oximeter measure? 2. How do methemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin effect the pulse oximeter measurements? 1. SaO2 2. they falsely elevate SaO2
1. What is methemoglobin? 2. How is it converted back to normal hemoglobin? 1. hemoglobin with an oxidized heme group (Fe3+) 2. cytochrome b5 reductase system that transfers H+ from NADH to metHb
1. Which electron carrier is inhibited by carbon monoxide? 2. Which electron carrier is inhibited by cyanide? 3. treatment for methemoglobinemia? 1. cytochrome oxidase (complex IV) 2. cytochrome oxidase (complex IV) 3. methylene blue
How do the following effect oxidative phosphorylation: 1. alcohol 2. dinitrophenol 3. salicylates All allow protons to move into the mitochondrial matrix but in different ways: 1. damage inner mitochondrial membrane 2. uncouple protein in inner membrane 3. damage inner mitochondrial membrane
How can alcohol or salicylates cause heat stroke? 1. since they cause protons to move into the mitochondrial matrix, rxns that develop NADH and FADH2 for the e- transport chain must increase to meet the need for H+ ions. 2. ↑ rxns causes hyperthermia
What are the intracellular consequences of hypoxia? 1. ↓ ATP → lactate accumulation → denaturation of enzymes → coagulation necrosis 2. ↓ ATP → defective Na/K ATPase: Na and water retention; Ca2+ retention initiates apoptosis
1. What free radicals are produced by high O2 concentrations? 2. Which enzyme neutralizes these free radicals? 1. superoxide and hydroxyl FRs → degraded by superoxide dismutase 2. hydrogen peroxide → degraded by glutathione peroxidase
1. Antioxidant vitamin that neutralized oxidized LDL 2. Antioxidant vitamine that neutralized hydroxyl FRs 1. vitamin E 2. vitamin C
1. Treatment of acetaminophen FRs 2. Why is this treatment used? 1. N-acetylcysteine 2. increases synthesis of glutathione
How does alcohol metabolism cause a fatty liver? 1. alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase produces excess NADH which converts DHAP to G3-P 2. acetyl CoA is end-product of alcohol metabolism → ↑fatty acids (FA) 3. G3-P combines with 3FA in the liver to form triglycerides
1. Deposition of calcium phosphate in necrotic tissue. 2. Deposition of calcium phosphate in normal tissue from increased serum calcium or phophate. 1. dystrophic calcification 2. metastatic calcification
Paraneoplastic effects of tumors: 1. small cell lung carcinoma 2. Leukemia 3. Thymoma 1. ACTH, ADH, Lambert Easton 2. Hyperuricemia (from excess nucleic acid turnover) 3. Myasthenia Gravis
Paraneoplastic effects of tumors: 1. Renal cell carcinoma 2. Squamous cell lung carcinoma 1. Erythropoietin → polycythemia 2. PTH-related peptide → Hypercalcemia
Which neoplasms contain psammoma bodies? PSaMMoma 1. Papillary (thyroid) 2. Serous (ovary) 3. Meningioma 4. Mesothelioma
Tumors that metastasize to brain Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia 1. Lung 2. Breast 3. Skin 4. Kidney 5. GI
Tumors that metastasize to liver Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Bening Liver 1. Colon 2. Stomach 3. Pancreas 4. Breast 5. Lung
Metastasis to Bone P.T. Barnum Loves Kids 1. Prostate 2. Thyroid, Testes 3. Breast 4. Lung 5. Kidney
Which tissues are the following tumor markers found in: 1. keratin 2. S100 3. PAS 1. epithelial 2. neural crest (melanoma, Schwannoma) 3. mucus secreting
Which type of necrosis is seen following immune damage (rheumatoid arthritis, SLE) fibrinoid necrosis
Which is more important in determining prognosis: tumor stage or grade? stage
Are the following cell injuries reversible? 1. pyknosis, karyolysis, karyorrhexis 2. fatty change 3. lysosomal rupture 4. mitochondrial permeability 5. cellular swelling 6. ribosomal detachment 1. no 2. yes 3. no 4. no 5. yes 6. yes
Which presents as a granulomatous disease: 1. pneumoconiosis 2. GI disorder 1. berylliosis 2. Crohn's disease
1. malignant tumor of epithelial origin 2. malignant tumor of connective tissue origin 1. carcinoma 2. sarcoma
Are the following reversible: 1. hyperplasia 2. anaplsia 3. neoplasia 4. dysplasia 5. metaplasia 1. yes 2. no 3. no 4. yes 5. yes
What cancers do the following tumor markers screen for? 1. prostatic acid phosphatase 2. CEA 3. CA-125 4. CA-19-9 1. prostate carcinoma 2. colorectal and pancreatic cancers 3. ovarian tumors 4. pancreatic adenocarcinoma
Neoplasms associate with AIDS 1. non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 2. Kaposi's sarcoma
What are the 3 components of oxygen content? Oxygen content = Hb x O2 saturation + partial pressure of arterial oxygen
1. What is oxygen saturation? 2. How do carbon monoxide and methemoglobin affect O2 saturation? 1. O2 in the RBC is attached to the heme group 2. ↓ because O2 can't bind Hb
Created by: amichael87



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