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Cell Cycle/Meiosis

Cell Cycle (Mitosis/Meiosis) Vocabulary

Chromosome Rod-shaped structures made of DNA and proteins
Histone The DNA in eukaryotic cell wraps tightly around these proteins
Chromatid Each half of the chromosome
Centromere Each chromatid is attached by this
Chromatin Less tightly coiled DNA-protein complex (when not in cell division)
Sex chromosomes chromosomes that determine sex
Autosomes All chromosomes that aren't sex chromosomes
Homologous chromosomes chromosomes that have the same size and shape and carry the same genes for the same traits.
Karyotype photomicrograph of the chromosomes in a normal dividing cell found in a human.
Diploid (cells) Cells with a full set of chromosomes
Haploid (cells) Cells with half the total chromosomes
Binary fission division of prokaryotic cells (DNA copied, cell begins to divide, two identical haploid cells)
Mitosis Occurs after interphase; the reproduction of a cell asexually (only one parent)
Meiosis formation of two gametes
Gametes haploid reproductive cells
Interphase time period between cell division where the cell grows to a mature size (G1), copies its DNA (S[ynthesis] phase), and prepares for division (G2)
Cytokinesis division of a cell's cytoplasm
Prophase First stage of mitosis (centrosomes appear, nuclear membrane goes away, and chromatin tightens up to form chromosomes.
Metaphase Second stage of mitosis (centrosomes, attached with spindle fibers that hold onto the chromosomes at the middle, or kinetochore, move to the poles)
Spindle Fibers Made of microtubules radiate from centrosomes.Note: Polar fibers don't attach to the chromosomes, they seperate them, and kinetochore fibers attach to the kinetochore of a cell.
Centriole organize microtubules of te cytoskeleton during cell division, only found in animals cells
Anaphase Chromatids of each chromosomes separate at the centromere and slowly move, centromere first, to the opposite poles.
Telophase After the chromosomes reach opposite ends of the cell, spindle fibers disassemble, and the chromosomes return to a less tightly coiled chromatin state, and nuclear envelopes form in both cells.
Cytokinesis (Animals) The cytoplasm divides and a cleavage furrow forms, then the cell splits.
Cytokinesis (plants) A cell plate (that will turn into a cell wall) forms between each cell and pushes them away from eachother, splitting the cell.
Cancer when the cell cycle is out of control
Synapsis pairing of homologous pairs (only in Meiosis)
Tetrad each pair of homologous chromosomes
Prophase I/Prophase II Prophase I the tetrads crossover genetic material resulting in genetic recombination. Prophase II is just like Prophase in mitosis.
Metaphase I/Metaphase II Tetrads randomly line up on the midline/just like metaphase in mitosis
Anaphase I/Anaphase II Each homologou chromosome (two chromatids) are poled to opposite poles. This random seperation is called INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT. Anaphase II the chromatids seperate.
Telophase I/Telophase II When the chromosomes reach opposite poles, cytokinesis begins. Two cells are produced, containing half the number of chromosomes, but two copies (two chromatid)
Spermatogenesis production of sperm cells
Oogenesis production of mature egg cells, or ova
Polar bodies other three products of meiosis called this, will disentegrate (due to uneven division of cytoplasm)
Sexual reproduction production of offspring through meiosis and the union of a sperm and an egg cell. offspring are genetically different from their parents.
Created by: Molly Turner



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