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Anti-Innfectives

Anti-InfectiveAgents Pharmacology

QuestionAnswer
When did the "antibiotic era" begin? In the 1940's with Pennicillin.
What is chemotherapy? The application of a chemical agent that has specific toxic effects on disease producing organisms in a living animal.
What is an antibiotic? a chemotherapeutic substance derived from a living organism that kills microorganism growth
What is a pathogen? A disease-causing microorganism.
What is normal flora? normally harmless microbial organisms in the body.
What is empiric therapy? antimicrobial therapy begun before a specific pathogen has been identified with laboratory tests.
What are the steps of the infectious process? 1. Establish the presence of infection. 2. Determine where infection is located. (is it systemic or local) 3.Determine course of therapy.
What information is used to establish the presence of an infection? Signs and symptoms Subjective and objective information
What can systemic infections cause? Since systemic infections may spread to the blood stream it can cause multi-system problems.
What kind of therapy to systemic infections require? A more aggressive therapy.
What is the suspected respiratory infection pathogen for croup? Parainfluenza virus Staphylococus aureus
What is the suspected respiratory infection pathogen for epiglottitis? Haemophilus influenzae
How is bacteria identified? As aerobic bacteria or anaerobic bacteria.
Aerobic bacteria need oxygen to survive
anaerobic bacteria do not need oxygen to survive
How do you test and identify for bacteria? gram stain
What are suceptibility testing methods? Disk diffusion Broth dilution
Who performed the first gram stain test? Hans christian Gram
How does the test determine chemical make up? By looking at the cell wall
What does the cell wall function to do? Maintain integrity and protect the bacteria. This is the site of action for many antibiotics.
What color does gram positive stain? purple
What is a gram positive wall like? It is composed of a uniform monolayer of peptidoglycans.
Are gram positive cells harder or easier to kill? Easier due to the monolayer
What color is the gram negative stain? pink
What does the cell wall of a gram look like? Multiple layers, including an outer membrane and an inner peptidoglycan layer
when does suceptibility testing begin? After the organism is already identified.
What does suceptibility testing help to do? guide antibiotic therapy
What are the two methods to determine susceptibility? Disk diffusion and broth dilution.
Disk diffusion A class technique Qualitative Bacteria cultured and grown on a solid media. Antibiotic-containing paper disks
The disk diffusion method has what? Zone of inhibition Resistant bacteria
Broth Dilution more quantitative accurately identify the concentration of drug needed to inhibit or kill bacteria. Involves test tubes
MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) The test tube with the lowest concentration of antimicrobial agent that inhibits the growth of the organism.
MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration) Determins whether the organism is actually killed
What are the Gram + bacteria? Streptococci Staphylococci (Everything else is Gram -)
What are broad spectrum antibiotics? Antibiotics that kill a variety of bacteria
What are narrow spectrum antibiotics? Antibiotics that are affective against fewer microorganisms. They are more specific.
Resistance Bacterial enzymes can bind to a drug Enzymes can bind to a drug and prevent drug from attaching to bacteria. Patients do not finish anti-infective treatment
How do you monitor anti-infective therapy? Clinical response Microbiological response (secondary blood/sputum culture Drug levels: TI/Toxicity
How are agents classified? bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal Broad or Narrow Mechanism of action atibacterial agents (classes)
Created by: kparkerlehman