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Found of Nursin CH21

Basic Nutrition and Nutrition Therapy

Amino Acids building blocks of protein
Anabolism building up or constructive phase of metabolism. The amount of nitrogen consumed is greater than the amount excreted.
Anorexia Nervosa self-imposed starvation
Basal Mass Index (BMI) An estimate used to determine if a person may be at health risk because of excessive weight. Weight(kg)/height(meters squared)=BMI
Bulimia Nervosa Binge eating followed by purging
Catabolism breaking down or destructive phase of metabolism. The body is losing more nitrogen than it is consuming.
Cholesterol fat-soluble sterol found in animal fats and oils, organ meats, and egg yolk.
Dietary Fiber Generic term for non-digestible chemical substances in plants.
Dumping Syndrome When the contents of the stomach empty too rapidly into the duodenum. (S/SX-nausea, persiration, vertigo, weakness)
Enteral Nutrition TUBE FEEDING (Administration of nutrients into the gastrointestinal tract)
Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and water necessary for growth, normal function and body maintenance. MUST BE SUPPLIED BY FOOD. They are not synthesized by the body in the quantities required for normal health.
Glycogen Polysacccharide that is a major carbohydrate stored in animal cells.
Hydrogenation process by which hydrogen is added to vegetable oil to make it more solid and stable to rancidity.
Kilocalorie (kcal) unit that denotes the HEAT EXPENDITURE of an organism and the FUEL OR ENERGY VALUE OF FOOD.
Lipids organic substances that are FATTY in nature, including FATS, OILS, STEROLS (such as cholesterol), phospholipids, waxed, and related compounds.
lipoproteins A protein-and-lipid molecule that facilitates transport of lipids into the bloodstream.
medical nutrition therapy The use of specific nutrition services to treat illness, injury, or condition.
nitrogen balance The difference between intake and output of nitrogen in the body.
nutrient a chemical compound or element in food that is necessary for good health.
nutrient-dense foods foods that contain large amounts of nutrients relative to kilocalories.
obesity excess of adipose tissue or body fat above the level considered healthy.
parenteral nutrition (AKA hyperalimentation) IV feedings administered in the peripheral veins (i.e...veins in arms or the legs - PPN route)
pernicious anemia A progressive megaloblastic, macroyctic anemia affecting mainly older people, that results from a lack of intrisic factor essential for the absorption of vitamin B12.
residue Bulk in the colon that includes undigested food, fiber, bacteria, body secretions, and cells.
satiety feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food.
therapeutic diet A diet used as medical treatment.
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) Administration of a hypertonic solution into a large central vein, ususally the superior vena cava, via a catheter threaded through either the subclavian or internal jugular vein.
tube feeding Administration of nutritionally balanced liquified food or formula through a tube insterted into the stomach, duodenum, or jejunum by way of nasocenteric or a feeding ostomy.
vegan Vegetarian whose diet excludes all foods of animal origin.
___________ is vital for the proper functioning of the cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, nervous, digestive, and immune systems. Nutrition.
Name seven ways to promote good nutrition in your patient. -patient teaching on importance of diet -serve tray meals promptly and in positive manner. -assit some pt. with eating -take and record pt. weight -record pt. intake -look for signs of poor nutrition and report -communication link -apply personally
What are some S/SX of dehydration? temperature, thirst, tugor of skin, sunken eyes, dry mouth, oliguria, disorientation, irritability, flushed, dry skin
What are some drugs that can alter food intake? Pain medication, diuretics, antibiotics
What are some S/SX of caffeine? nervousness, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, heart dysrythmia, and palpitations.
What nutritional element is lacking in a vegan diet? Vitamin B12 as this is mainly obtained in animal products like meat.
Based on the food pyramid, How much grain should you consume daily? 6oz
Based on the food pyramid, How much vegetables should you consume daily? 2.5 cups
Based on the food pyramid, How much fruits should you consume daily? 2 cups
Based on the food pyramid, How much milk should you consume daily? 3 cups
Based on the food pyramid, How much meat and beans should you consume daily? 5.5 oz
What nutrient helps to build and make muscle? protein.
A high kilocalorie protein intake is needed for burn patients or patients that need significant healing. True or False True
What is the KCAL for fat? 9
What is the KCAL for alcohol? 7
What is the KCAL for Carbohydrates and Protein? 4
What is a DRI (Dietary reference intake) nutrient based value for assessing and planning diets.
What are the three basic functions that nutrients perform? 1) provide energy 2) build and repair tissue 3) regulate body processes
Metabolism combination of all chemical processes that take place in living organisms.
Carbohydrates organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen the most important of which are sugar, starch, cellulose and gum
What is the main function of a carbohydrate? provide energy
What is a saccharide? Simple sugar
What are some insoluble fibers? vegetables, wheat, and grains.
What are some water soluble fibers? Fruits, oats, barley and legumes.
What is the recommended fiber intake in a day? 21/38 g a day
What is a saturated fat? fatty acid whose chemical bonds are completely filled, ro saturated with hydrogen. GENERALLY FROM ANIMALS AND SOLID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE.
What is an unsaturated fat? fatty acid has one or more places in the chemical chain where hydrogen in missing. USUALLY FROM PLANTS AND LIQUID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE.
What is a trans fatty acid? unsaturated fatty acids that vary slightly in their chemical configuration from naturally occurring fatty acids. PRESENT IN FOODS CONTAINING PARTIALLY DYDROGENATED VEGETABLE OILS (I.E...FRIED AND PROCESSED FOOD)
The serum cholesterol (cholesterol found in the blood stream should be less than ______mg/dl. 200
____________ make up the bodys lean tissue and organs. Proteins
What is a necessary element in the formation in any type of protein? Nitrogen
_____________ is a vital connective tissue that is made of protein. Collagen
_____________ are proteins produced by living cells that catalyze chemical reactions without being changed in the process. Enzymes
______________ in the red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the bosy. Hemoglobin.
Plasma ___________ aid in fluid balance within the body. protein.
How many essential amino acids are there? 9
What is a complete protein? A protein that contains all nine essential amino acids the the quantity the body needs. (Milk, fish, cheese, eggs, and soy
What is an incomplete protein? proteins that lack one of the essential amino acids needed by the body. (grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds)
How is nitrogen excreted in the body? urine, feces, and sweat.
Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) lack of energy or protein intake
What are the two types of PEM? Marasmus and Kwashiorkor
Marasmus Skin and bones appearance due to subcutaneous fat stores and muscle store depletion.
Kwashiorkor Edema in feet, legs, and abdomen resulting from severe protein restriciton in the presence of other calories.
Vitamins are susceptible to destruction by what? heat, light, and exposure to air.
Vitamins A, D, E, and K are ________ soluble. fat
Vitamins B and C are ______ soluble. water
Toxicity condition that results from exposure to excess amounts of a substance
What is the role of fat in the body? insulation, protection, and energy.
How do antioxidants function? They delay or prevent destruction or breakdown of cell membranes in the presence of oxygen. Vitamin E and C
Why is vitamin D a nutrient of concern for some older adult patients in long term facilities? They are confined indorrs and do not drink or consume as many milk products.
Vitamin K plays a role in what? blood clotting
What is an adverse effect of too much potassium in a patient? cardiac arrest
What is the suggested sodium intake for patients? Upper limit is set at 2300 mg/day: *Note these 1500 mg/day - younger adults 1300 mg/day - adults 1200 mg/day - older adults
Water makes up __________ of an adult body weight. 60%
Caffeine intake should be less than __________ mg/day. 300
What is the BMI associated with the lowest health risk? 18.5 - 24.9
What is the BMI associated with being overweight? 25 - 29.9
What is the BMI associated with being obese? 30 or greater
What eating disorder is not associated with purging? Binge-eating
What are the primary goals of medical nutrition therapy in the treatment of diabetes melitus? -maintain blood glucose, lipid and pressure levels. -prevent the slow developement of complications (i.e...obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension) -address nutritional needs -maintain the pleasure of eating
What are the three categorical S/SX of eating disorders? Emotional, Physical, & Behavioral.
What is a treatment for dumping syndrome? small, frequent meals that are high in protein and fat and low in carbs.
What conditions may require a protein restricted diet? chronic renal failure or cirrhosis of the liver.
Gastric contents usually have a ph of ____. 0-4
Tracheobronchial and pleural secretions ususally have a ph greater than ____. 6
intestinal contents usually have a ph of ____ or greater. 7
A continuous tube feeding administers formula over ___ to ___ hours. 16/24
Intermittent feedings give a specific volume of formula over a short time of usually ___ to ____ minutes. 20/30
Bolus feedings give a 4-6 hour volume of formula in a matter of __________, which most patients tolerate poorly. minutes.
_______ _________ will be used only when all or at least part of the GI tract is functioning. Tube feedings.
If a pt. is receiving an enteral feeding, they should be taught to do what four things? 1) assess tube placement before administering formula. 2) method of GI fluid PH measurment and expected range. 3) do not administer is there is doubt on tube placement. 4) administer at room temperature.
Gavage enteral feedings
What are some common problems and nursing interventions with tube feedings? irritation or oral mucous membranes, acute otitis media, irritation of nasal and palate tissue, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal distention, aspiration, clogged tube, and high electrolyte blood levels.
Created by: losmica