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Biol 232 #3

wildlife mgmt test 3

Disease is... any abnormal structural or functional aspect of an individual. may be acquired or inherited.
Categories of diseases infectious parasitic toxic physiological nutritional congenital degenerative
Why is studying diseases important? spread due to travel, shipping, invasives shrinking natural populations changing environment
why study wildlife diseases? -wildlife serve as reservoirs or vectors -as habitat is reduced the pop. become more concentrated and leads to increase risk of disease transmission. -at risk pop. may be wiped out -public may demand it.
Zoonoses disease primarily of nonhuman animals that may be transmitted to humans
viral disease: Rabies there is a vaccine. transmitted through bite of rabid animal(vector) raccoon, skunk, bat, foxes. domestics less than 10% most common in dogs,cats,cattle.
viral disease: rinderpest or cattle plague. contagious, affects cattle and buffalo. signs are bleeding, fever, erosive mouth lesions, runny nose and eyes, diarrhea. most deadly and intense epizootic outbreak in 1890s. spread south from horn of Africa.
viral disease: myxomatosis 1st in rabbits in S.A. member of the pox-virus family. 1st ex. of bio-control in 1859 Australia. 1995 rabbits took over again then another bio-control with RHDV or rabbit calcivirus.
Viral Disease: Bluetongue spreads animal to animal by biting gnats. similar symptoms to EHD.
viral disease: EHD or epizootic hemorrhagic disease acute, infectious, and often fatal of wild ruminants. extensive organ hemorrhages and mouth and nose. happened about 2 yrs ago.
Viral disease: west Nile virus or (WNV) mosquito-borne virus can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain and or meningitis. found all over- mostly in birds but can jump to others.
immunodeficiency viruses -best known is HIV -attack the immune system -various animal forms (SIV= simmion- where it came from). These diseases hijack reproduction of own immune calls and reproduces own.
hemorrhagic fevers (hantavirus) (HPS) hantavirus pulmonary syndrome- deadly, origin in north america. from fecal and urine materials of rodents. 1st in 1993 orig. called four corners virus.
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) highly contagious, mostly affecting artiodactyls (hoofed animals with even #toes on ea. foot). transmission by aerosol, direct contactcan cause embargoes when outbreak ocurr( burn all livestock). rare in humans. legions on hooves or mouths. found globally
Bacterial diseases: Tularemia or rabbit fever. given to ppl who skin the rabbits or are bitten by infected insects (vector) or eating/drinking contaminated stuffs. Ky leading in cases/ 75% men.
Bacterial diseases: Brucellosis cause by genus bacteria "brucella". causes abortion of livestock. can be passed to other animals. bison, elk known to be affected as well as some humans. weaponized in 1950s by U.S.
Bacterial diseases: tuberculosis (TB) caused by mycobacteria. bovis strand affects cattle, infection of air/respiratory. AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE DOES NOT NEED A VECTOR.
bacterial disease: anthrax "Bacillus anthracis" naturally occurring in soil. prevalent where carcasses build up. often times where water holes are poisoned. the flies eat from the dead and poop pit anthrax spores on plants
bacterial disease: Lyme disease caused by bacterium, "borrelia burgdoferi, and is transmitted by black legged ticks or deer ticks. symptoms= fever, fatigue, muscle aches, headache, skin rash- erthema migrons. was not known 330 yrs ago b/c 1) better comm. 2) better knowledge 3) more deer
Toxic disease caused by ingestion of poison or toxin.
toxic disease: Botulism caused by ingestion of toxin produced by bacteria. cause massive die-offs. mostly in swampy areas when water goes down.
Created by: 594103486



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