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General Pharmacologi

General Pharmacologic Principals

What is a drug? Any chemical that alters an organsim state
What is pharmacology? The study of drugs and their actions
What is disease management? The collective management of all aspects of a patients disease
What is the average cost of developing a new drug on the market? 1.3-1.7 billion
What are some sources of drugs? Plants, animals, minerals, chemicals, DNA
When was the FDA established? 1938
What does the FDA do? regulate drug testing and approve new drugs on the market
How does the FDA treat herbals? They treat them as dietary suppliments.
What is the first stage of testing for drug development? Testing on animals.
What is the first phase of human testing? Small trial on normal subjects
What is the second phase of human testing? Small trial on diseased subjects.
What is the third phase of human testing? Large multi-center trials (FDA approval0
What is the fourth phase of human testing? post-marketing surveillance
What are sources of drug information? Drug inserts or monographs American hospital formulary service PDR PDA Micromedex World wide Web
What is the chemical name? It indicates the chemical structure for the manufacturing process
What is the generic name? A non-proprietary name Given by the USAN lower case letters
What is the trade name? The brand name These names are capitalized
What is the indication and usage? Reasons why you would use the medication.
What are contraindications? Reasons why you would not use the medication.
Additive effect Where both drugs have the same effect on a specific sign or symptom. 1+1=2
Synergism When the combination of two drugs can cause a much greater reaction than simply the sum of the effects of each drug. 1+1=3
Drug potentiation When one of the drugs have no direct effect and increases the response of the other drug which usually has a lesser effect. 1+0=3
What is an adverse drug reaction? An unintented side effect
First pass effect? Liver metabolism
Enteral route? Gastrointestinal. Has a systemic effect and goes through the first pass effect. PO, most common and convenient
Parenteral route Injections Fast Acting Bypasses "first-pass effect" drugs must be soluble
Topical route Skin/mucous membranes More localized vs. systemic with less side effects
Transdermal Patch
What are four things that effect bioavailability? solubility of the drug dosage form route of administration Ph values
What are pharmacokinetics? Movement of drugs through the body
What are the four phases of pharmokinetics? Absorption Distribution Metabolism Elimination
Absorbtion Occurs when drug passes from administration site to the blood stream
Bioavailability Measure of drug the makes it to the blood stream
Steady state continued infustion
Therapuetic range Effective theraputic blood level of drug
Distribution After absorbed the blood stream distributes drug to receptor sites
What affects distribution Blood pressure/blood floow Fat/H20 solubility protein binding (Albumin/globulin)
Metabolism The liver is the organ for metabolism. breaks down into metabolites oxidation system
Elimination Kidneys and Urine (feces, skin,lungs)
Pharmacodynamics What the drug does to the body
What are complete prescription orders? Date,Time Procedure,therapy Medication and dosage Route of administration frequency special instructions physicians signature
The 5 rights Right drug Right dose Right Patient right Time Right Route (always check allergies)
Therapist driven protocols Used widely today Save time and money Have shown decreased lengths of stay Gives the RCP more flexibility Better Patient outcomes More job satisfaction
selectivity The extent to which a drug affects a specific receptor site THe more specific the less side effects
Lock and Key receptor theory Interaction between a drug or receptor. Only one drug can fit that receptor
Racemic mixtures Drugs that contain two compounds(isomers) that may have different activity
Agonist Drugs that bind to a receptor and cause an effect
Antagonist Drugs that bind to a receptor and block an effect
Potency (strength) Amount of drug required to cause a desired effect
Tolerance Decrease in suceptability to a drug's effect from continued use
Desensitization Repeated exposure to a drug over a period of time that causes effect to decrease
Half- Life Time required for blood/plasma concentration to fall to half the original concentration
Loading dose Gets the concentration of drug up quickly
Maintenence dose Maintains the level in blood, keeps drug at a theraputic level
Toxicology The study of drugs as they relate to poisons (2-5 million per year)
Emetics Agents that induce vomiting
Theraputic index measurement of a drugs safety
C With
S Without
P After
A Before
ac before meals
bid twice a day
cap capsule
cc cubic centimeter
IM intramuscular
IV Intravenous
L liter
ml mililiter
npo nothing by mouth
pc after meals
po by mouth
prn as needed
q every
qh every hour
qid four times daily
q.2h every 2 hours
q.3h every 3 hours
q.4h every 4 hours
Rx Take
sig directions
stat immediately
tab tablets
tid three times daily
ut dict as directed
Created by: kparkerlehman