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Exam 5

Test 5

What is the principal driving force of mass wasting? Gravity
What factors control slope stability? Solid Bedrock
What may trigger mass wasting? Torrential rain,earthquakes,volcanic eruptions
Mass wasting process are based on: A.Typeof Material,Type of Motion,Rate of Movement
What processes might be involved in moving water from the atmosphere to groundwater? The Hydrologic cycle
Where is most of the Earth's freshwater involved? Oceans
Where is most of the water on Earth located? oceans
Drainage basin/watershed total land area from which precipitation reaches a stream
Mass Wasting downslope movement of rock, sediment and soil under the direct influence of gravity
Water excessive amounts can cause stable slopes to fail
Oversteepened slopes
Slope composition solid bedrock is more stable; unconsolidated material remains stable until slope exceeds angle of repose
Creep (mm or cm per year)caused by expansion/contraction of loose sediment due to wetting and drying or freezing and thawing
Solifluction movement of loose material over a layer of permafrost
Fall rock or sediment breaks free from a steep or vertical slope and falls (through the air)to the ground below
Slide a single intact mass of rock, soil, or unconsolidated material detaches and moves downward along a plane of weakness, or slip plane
Slump movement of rock of regolith as a unit along a curved surface
Flow fluid movement or rock fragments/soil
Earthflow usually form on hillside in wet climates when water saturates the soil
Debris Flow and mudflow rapid movement of sediment and water in stream channels, usually in semiarid, mountainous regions
Rock avalanche swift and dangerous. Occurs on steep slopes. Huge volume of material detaches, crashes to the ground and continues at high velocity downslope. May move on cushion of compressed air.
Ft/miles=80 ft/3 miles=26.66 ft/m
The hydrologic cycle movement of water from one reservoir to another in the Earth system
Stream water that flows in a channel
Drainage divide area of high topography which separates one drainage basin from another
Velocity distance/time; Not uniform within a stream; Faster in deep part of channel; faster on the outside of a curve
Gradient(slope) =vertical drop/horizontal distance decreases downstream
Discharge volume of water passing by an area per unit of time
Base level the lowest level to which the stream can erode(often sea level)
Graded there is little net erosion or deposition
Incised meanders meandering channel in steep, narrow rocky channel
Stream terraces remnants of a former floodplain
Drainage patterns Dendritic, Radial, Rectangular, Trellis.
Suspended load small particles that remain suspended in the water
Bed load larger particles that move along the stream bottom
Saltation bouncing
Traction rolling along the bottom
Capacity maximum load a stream can transport
Competence the maximum particle size that a stream can transport
Meandering channels forms sweeping bends(meanders)
Braided channels stream choked with sandbars, no clear main channel
Point bar inside bank of a meander
Channel bar mid channel
Cut bank eroding outer bank of a meander
Oxbow lake lake formed when a meander is cut off
Meander scar oxbow lake filled in with sediments
Backswamp wetland on a floodplain
Natural leaves deposited on stream bank during a flood
Yazoo tributary flows parallel to main stream because natural levee is present
Alluvial fan deposition at the Foot of mountains
Delta Deposition into Standing Water
Zone of aeration(unsaturated zone) pore spaces contain both air and water
zone of saturation pore spaces are filled with water
water table top of zone of saturation(a.may change seasonally or year to year,b.generally follows surface topography)
recharge infiltration of water(mostly from precipitation)into the groundwater system
gaining streams gain water because groundwater flows into streambed(if water table is above the stream)
losing streams lose water that flows through streambed underground(if water table is below the stream)
porosity volume of pore space in rock or sediment(expressed as percent %)
permeability ability of a material to transmit water
aquifer a body of geologic material that can store and can transmit significant amounts of groundwater
unconfined aquifer aquifer that has no overlying impermeable rock or soil
Confined aquifer aquifer that is sandwiched between impermeable rock layers
Created by: danyy30