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historical geol 5

middle paloezoic

Taconic land eroded flat Silurian
transgression Phase 1
abundant salt deposits developed ~500 m thick Phase 1
shallow epicontinental seas Phase 1
eastern US and Europe Acadian orogeny
in Europe the equivalent event Caledonian orogeny
collision first in the north - then migrated south Phase 2
regression Phase 2
Late Devonian - expressed in Nevada rocks orogenic activity
western US (small scale event) Antler orogeny
2. off shore sediments and island arcs thrust on land Antler orogeny
D. Climate relatively warm through the Silurian to the later Devonian Antler orogeny
high latitude cooler temperatures during the Devonian
global climate deteriorated toward the Earth carboniferous
glaciation started Famennian- latest devonian
necessary before animals can live on land Silurian Life land plants
rigid stalk or stem as a support system Silurian plants
vascular systems to distribute nutrients Silurian plants
leaves to increase surface area Silurian plants
reproduction using spores Silurian plants
require warm climates major reef complexes
corals major reef complexes
stromatoporoids and tabulates major reef complexes
dominant predator, to 2 meters in size eurypterid
major diversity of brachiopods Silurian life
nautiloids and crinoids abundant Silurian life
fauna flourishing Ordovician
trilobites recovery limited Late Ordovician extinction
major fish adaptive radiation vertebrates
(bony skin fish) in fresh water deposits ostracoderms
no jaws ostracoderms
armored ostracoderms
acanthodians (fish) marine and fresh water acanthodians
fins and spines acanthodians
scales and jaws acanthodians
generally mud-grubbers acanthodians
a root system to collect nutrients Early Devonian plants
reproduction using spores Early Devonian plants
restricted to damp habitats Early Devonian plants
branching root systems Middle Devonian
first forests Middle Devonian
plants widely spread over land Middle Devonian
most primitive gymnosperms Middle Devonian
first seeds Middle Devonian
liberated plants from moist habitats Middle Devonian
pollen for reproduction Middle Devonian
trees occupied land for the first time Late Devonian
spore plant; first tree (30 m) Archaeopteris
due to broad leaves to capture sunlight Archaeopteris
swimming predators ammonites
(Lower Devonian) Emsian Stage
spiny brachiopods Emsian Stage
conodont high point Emsian Stage
animals move on land Early Devonian
scorpions Early Devonian
flightless insects Early Devonian
main guide fossil for GSSPs conodonts
Age of the Fishes Devonian
sharks cartilagenous
rays cartilagenous
most successful fish bony
lobe finned fish bony
direct line to land vertebrates lobe finned fish
endo-skeleton - most important lobe finned fish
muscular lobe finned fish
most fresh water lobe finned fish
coelacanths invaded oceans lobe finned fish
only remaining relative alive coelacanths
includes lungfishes lobe finned fish
dominant in later Phanerozoic ray finned fish
Late Devonian - land vertebrates Amphibians
reason: competition in water was fierce Amphibians
lobe finned fish out of water; had a lung Amphibians
converted into a walking limb fin
found in Greenland rocks; ~60 cm long ichthyostega
limited by need of water for reproduction ichthyostega
classed by backbone structure ichthyostega
- due to necessary support against gravity ichthyostega
- one of five greatest in Earth history - maybe Late Devonian Mass Extinction
occurred at the Frasnian-Famennian stage boundary Late Devonian Mass Extinction
cause unknown - perhaps due to Greenhouse cooling Late Devonian Mass Extinction
- resulting from CO2 reduction in the atmosphere by forests Late Devonian Mass Extinction
further extinctions due to glaciation D-C boundary
Land plants abundant; Trees in the Devonian Plants
intense competition from predators Invertebrates
trending toward mobile forms Invertebrates
Fish advanced; Amphibians on land Vertebrates
Created by: lmulke1