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historical geol 4

lower paloezoic

general aspects for Cambrian - Ordovician tectonic cycles
transgressive phase - Cambrian phase 1
oceans over continents forming epeiric (inland) seas phase 1
Cambriain - most of the craton covered by water epeiric seas
warm climate phase 1
volcanism at a low ebb phase 1
sandstones - shales - limestones sediments
offshore overlies onshore Walther's Law - Transgressive section
interfingering relationships Walther's Law - Transgressive section
time lines cut lithologies Walther's Law - Transgressive section
mainly fine grained marine sediment Walther's Law - Transgressive section
limestones dominated marine sediment
near-shore clastics marine sediment
sequences thickening offshore due to sediment loading and lithosphere cooling Walther's Law - Transgressive section
regressive phase - Late Ordovician phase 2
retreating water due to major glaciation - sea level fall phase 2
coastal land disturbance and uplift phase 2
continental sediment abundant phase 2
climates diversify phase 2
cooler temperatures phase 2
(Phase 1 transgression) early cambrian
trilobites abundant Phase 1
liked warm, shallow fine grained system trilobites
Laurentia (N. Am., Greenland, British Isles) Phase 1
just north of the equator Laurentia
rotated 90o Laurentia
global circulation changes, regression Late Cambrian
climatic cooling Late Cambrian
periodic trilobite mass extinctions Late Cambrian
dark shales deposited with fossil graptolites Middle Ordovician
identified as the graptolite facies Middle Ordovician
Laurentia still near equator but rotated 45o Middle Ordovician
position continents by latitude paleomagnetism
faunal provinces indicate latitude paleobiogeography
sediments as climate indicators paleoclimatology
warm, dry dunes
warm, wet coals
cold, wet (glaciation) tills
Grenville to 880 Ma Precambrian disturbance
settled into transgressive phase 1 in the Cambrian Precambrian disturbance
Ozark Mts. - Precambrian broad continental highs
Transcontinental Arch; cambrian broad continental highs
Wisconsin Dome; cambrian broad continental highs
Ordovician - Cincinnati Arch broad continental highs
Late Ordovician Taconic Orogeny
only in the Eastern US - Appalachian area (Phase 2 regression)
Western Laurentia was stable (Phase 2 regression)
Laurentia - collided with an island arc (Phase 2 regression)
oceanic crust obducted - thrust up Taconic Orogeny
ophiolites (ocean crust) exposed Taconic Orogeny
Iapetus (proto-atlantic) Ocean beginning to close Taconic Orogeny
eroded sands spread west from eastern highs phase 2
abundant salt deposits developed ~500 m thick (Phase 1 transgression)
shallow epicontinental seas (Phase 1 transgression)
early Cambrian - radiation of life was slow cambrian life
algae in epicontinental seas plants
abundant, marine; calcium used in shells invertebrates
uses inorganics as food - plants autotrophic
uses organics as food - animals heterotrophic
fixed forms were filter or suspension feeders Modes of Life
most mobile forms were deposit feeders Modes of Life
Siberia Tommotian Fauna
small skeletal elements Tommotian Fauna
many not associated with any living phylum Tommotian Fauna
some ancestral to mollusks; brachiopods; sponges Tommotian Fauna
Age of trilobites (Arthropods)
75% of all Cambrian fossils (Arthropods)
good guide/index fossils (Arthropods)
lived on shallow shelves (Arthropods)
bottom feeder (Arthropods)
calcium phosphate carapace (Arthropods)
fixed to the bottom brachiopods
phosphatic shells brachiopods
mainly inarticulate brachiopods
Class Inarticulata brachiopods
not hinged brachiopods
extinction in the Cambrian archaeocyathids
cone shaped archaeocyathids
helped form early reefs in Tommotian time archaeocyathids
closely related to sponges archaeocyathids
Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale
black shale in the Canadian Rocky Mountains Burgess Shale
soft body organisms well preserved Burgess Shale
Pikaia - Burgess Shale first vertebrate
has a notochord chordate
named Anatolepis) - dated at 510 Ma first fish
found in the Deadwood formation, Wyoming first fish
Cambrian to Triassic conodonts
rasping organs from a chordate conodonts
excellent guide fossil conodonts
generally warm shallow seas Ordovician life
Plants/bacteria - first land plants - restricted to moist habitats Ordovician life
algae in epicontinental seas plants
reproduction using spores plants
significant decline - increased predation stromatolites
major evolutionary radiation in the oceans invertebrates
key guide fossils graptolites
cephalopods advanced invertebrates nautiloid
calcium carbonate shell (CaCO3) common Middle - Late Ordovician
abundant oil/gas formed form organic material Middle - Late Ordovician
height of trilobite development Middle - Late Ordovician
eurypterids: water scorpions Middle - Late Ordovician
corals (rugose) and crinoids common Ordovician to Permian
first colonies of bryozoans Ordovician to Permian
stromatoporoids and tabulates Ordovician to Permian
fish continued adaptive radiation Ordovician to Permian vertebrates
major mass extinction/glaciation near the end of the Ordovician Ordovician to Permian
Created by: lmulke1