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Neisseria 11-19-11

SCC microbiology

List the two medically important Neisseria species known to be pathogenic to humans, their "common" name and the clinical condition associated with them. Neisseria gonorrhoeae "gonococcus" causes gonorrhea and Neisseria meningiditis "meningococcus" causes meningitis and sepsis.
Can Neisseria spp. be normal human flora? If so, where? Yes in the mucosal flora...this is the other Neisseria spp.
What areas of the body do Neisseria spp. normally inhabit? Mucous membranes of the respiratory tract
What types of specimens are collected for the isolation of Neisseria spp.? What are the preferred specimens, both male and female? Specimen sources include: oropharynx, conjunctiva, blood, urine, joint fluid, prostatic fluid, endometrium, etc. Preferred male specimen = urethra Preferred female specimen = endocervix
Why is it so important that specimens collected for the isolation of Neisseria spp. be delivered to the laboratory immediately upon collection? To ensure optimal recovery of Neisseria spp. As it is an aerobic and doesn't survive at room temp. very long
What is the gram stain reaction and morphology of the Neisseria spp.? Gram negative diplococci
What is the oxidase reaction of the Neisseria spp.? Oxidase positive
What is meant by the term "fastidious"? Fastidious means that they need additional nutrients to grow.
What kind of primary media should be inoculated to grow Neisseria spp.? Choc and/or Modified Thayer Martin (MTM) are media used to grow Neisseria spp. because these organisms are fastidious and require the extra nutrients. These organisms WILL NOT grow on MacConkeys/EMB agars.
List the incubation requirements of the Neisseria spp. 35-37C, CO2 atmosphere, enriched media, 18-24 hrs. incubation
How is Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmitted? Sexually transmitted or in the birth canal of those infected to their newborns
What WBC can the gonococcus be associated with "intracellularly". What do I mean when I say the gonococcus is "intracellular"? neutrophils “intracellular” means within the cell. Intercellular gram neg. diplococci=gonococcus
What areas of the body do we see Neisseria gonorrhoeae infect? Anogenital and oropharyngeal mucous membranes.
What is the preventative treatment of newborns, at birth, to prevent transmission of gonorrhea from an infected mother? Placing silver nitrate on the eyes or using antibiotics in the eyes at birth.
What is the most common "clinical manifestation" of gonococcal infection seen in men? In women? Acute urethritis is most common in men, the cervicitis is the most common in women.
What is the treatment for gonorrhea? antibiotics
If left untreated, can gonorrhea spread to other parts of the body? If so, where? yes---it can disseminate (spread) thorughout the entire body
What does Neisseria gonorrhoeae look like "macroscopically" on primary culture media like Chocolate or Modified Thayer-Martin (MTM) agar? N. gonorrhoeae usually appears as small, shiny, gray, pearl colonies on Choc/MTM agar.
Why must the identification of gonorrhea be confirmed? To distinguish it from normal flora and any STD must be reported to the SBOH
List the types of test methods available to identify gonorrhea. Both types are from a culture and directly from a clinical specimen. serology testing, biochemical testing (API), DNA tests, GC (gonococcus) culture
What is the gram stain reaction and morphology of Neisseria meningitis? Gram negative diplococci
Where can Neisseria meningitides be found as normal flora in humans? N. meningitiis is a normal inhabitant of the oropharynx or nasophayrnx.
How is Neisseria meningitidis transmitted? Inhalation of airborne droplets or by direct contact with contaminated respiratory secretions for infected
What types of specimens can be collected for the isolation of Neisseria meningitidis? Specimens for the isolation of this organism: sterile body fluids, such as CSF, blood, joint fluid, pleural fluid, aspirates and biopsy specimens.
What are the classical signs of meningitis headache, fever, stiff neck and confusion. (Vomiting may occur in children.)
types of primary media are inoculated for the isolation of Neisseria meningitis? Why? N. meningiditis can grow on BAP as well as Chocolate agar, THIO, MTM. It's a fastidious organism and req's extra nutrients to grow
What are the incubation requirements for Neisseria meningitidis? Incubation is at 35-37C in increased CO2, enriched media
How is the identification of Neisseria meningitidis confirmed? confirmed with biotesting, serological tests, DNA tests, GC (gonococcus) culture
How are infections with Neisseria meningitidis treated? N memignitidis is treated with penicillin or some other antibiotic
What is the old nomenclature for Branhamella (Moraxella) catarrhalis? Nesseria catarrhalis
What is the gram stain reaction and morphology of Branhamella catarrhalis? This organism is a gram negative diplococci
What types of infections are associated with Branhamella catarrhalis? respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, ear infections, pneumonia
Is Branhamella catarrhalis part of human normal flora? And if so, where? This organism may be part of the normal flora in the nasopharynx, or the upper respiratory tract
What types of specimens are collected for the isolation of Branhamella catarrhalis? sputum specimens, ear fluid, throat, sinus aspirates
types of primary media are inoculated for the isolation of Branhamella catarrhalis? BAP as well as on Choc agar.
What are the incubation requirements for Branhamella catarrhalis? B. catarrhalis should be incubated at 35-37C in a CO2 environment on enriched media
What does Branhamella catarrhalis look like "macroscopically" on BAP? Colonies appear grayish white on BAP or creamy pink on Choc agar. The characteristic of being able to "push" the colony with an inoculating loop has led to the description of a "hockey puck" appearance.
How is definitive identification of Branhamella catarrhalis obtained? Biochemical tests (API, Gonochek II) Serological tests (antigen/antibody rx) DNA tests (Accuprobe, Genprobe) GC (gonococcus) culture
How is infection with Branhamella catarrhalis treated? Penicillian however increasing numbers of the pathogen are becoming penicillian-resistant, so sensitivities should be done.
Created by: nizhoni