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historical geol


Darwin's contribution- 1859 The Origin of Species
Participant during the Voyage of the Beagle - 1831 Darwin
2. Lyell's Principles of Geology convinced him Darwin
observed geographic distribution of animals Uniformitarian
unique animals in different locations Uniformitarian
slow constant change faunal succession
organisms evolving from less complex forms faunal succession
survival based on advantage - natural selection natural selection
instinct for self or race preservation natural selection
need for food challenge
don't become food response
organs with the same ancestral origin homology
but serve different functions, e.g. bat wings homology
relatively small, lacking complexity vestigial organs
organs with no function, e.g. whales pelvis vestigial organs
similar to functioning organs in others vestigial organs
developed from the concept of heredity genetics
paired strands containing genetic code chromosomes
identified by Mendel as particulate inheritance chromosomes
made up of DNA genes
concentrated within chromosomes DNA molecule
won the Nobel Prize Crick and Watson, Wilkins
book Double Helix) Crick and Watson, Wilkins
chemical changes in DNA lead to mutation
genetic makeup (hereditary character) genotype
complete set of genes in an organism genome
physical characteristics of individuals phenotype
total of all genetic components of an interbreeding gene pool
origin of two or more individuals from speciation
1st Order - 5-8 events in Earth history extinction
2nd Order - ~23 events extinction
3rd Order - ~33 events extinction
rapid expansions of organisms evolutionary radiation
new phyla, classes, orders or families evolutionary radiation
less competition in new niches evolutionary radiation causes
predators have not adjusted to new organisms evolutionary radiation causes
often possible because of extinction of other groups evolutionary radiation causes
adaptive breakthroughs - key features providing an edge evolutionary radiation causes
destruction of groups of organisms Rates of Extinction
average mammal species survives for just 1-2 Ma Rates of Extinction
average marine species survives for >10 Ma Rates of Extinction
high rates of genera extinctions mass extiction
Permo-Triassic ~70% marine genera largest extinction
phylogeny of life ‘Tree of Life’
new species originate by branching off from others ‘Tree of Life’
species cluster in groups with common traits ‘Tree of Life’
represent higher taxa - more advanced clusters
small clusters become a genus genus
genera with similar traits become family family
Animalae (animal) Kingdom
Chordata (vertebrata - backbone) phylum
Mammalia (mammal) class
Primate order
Hominidae (hominid) family
Homo genus
sapiens species
cluster that shares similar traits derived from a common ancestor; clade
research emphasizing branching events in phylogeny cladistics
early traits shared biological traits
derived traits - evolved later shared biological traits
mark branching point in evolution origin of new traits
illustrated by a cladogram origin of new traits
only shows relatively complete groups cladogram
useful approach in developing phylogeny cladogram
new species arising from older species phylogeny
history of one or more genetically related species lineages
an individuals changes - life to death ontogeny
change in body size - generally increasing traits
greater complexity traits
longer legs horse changes
extension of finger nail horse changes
complex teeth horse changes
loss of rear legs change to whales
increase in size change to whales
body streamlined change to whales
front legs converted to flippers change to whales
species in lineage gradually change phyletic gradualism
operates on the entire population phyletic gradualism
what Darwin believed was happening due to Natural Selection phyletic gradualism
most changes due to rapid, local speciation punctuated equilibrium
longer-lived unchanging lineages punctuated equilibrium
history of one or more genetically related species lineages
debate in paleontology punctuated equilibrium versus phyletic gradualism (Natural Selection)
sharp, distinct speciation Steven Jay Gould
evolutionary changes are not reversible Steven Jay Gould
that contingency has been a critical governing mechanism, Steven Jay Gould
along with ‘survival of the fittest’ (phyletic gradualism, Steven Jay Gould
also known as Natural Selection), responsible for the life we see on Earth today. Steven Jay Gould
A possible future event that can’t be prevented or predicted (“the luck of the draw” concept Contingency
species specialization Adaptive radiation
diverge from a common ancestor divergence
production of similar forms convergence
plants - tree form to compete for light environmental controls
do it the best way adapt to efficiency
adapt to an already successful organism mimicry
different species cannot interbreed and produce viable offspring (which can in turn produce offspring) species concept
good only for living organisms species concept
extremely difficult problem if organism is extinct species concept
paleontologists use morphological traits species concept
shape, size, proportions morphological traits
many problems e.g. lumpers versus the splitters morphological traits
right versus left coiling shape
abnormally big or small size, proportions
most species (>99.9%) never fossilized Major Problem
spontaneous mutation of chromosomes species changes
constant, slow gradualism
fast punctuated
predation driving change - yields physical adaptation competition
extinct at one locality migration
mindless effects; e.g. seeds are dispersed dispersion
carried by winds Atmospheric
carried by organisms Atmospheric
floating or as attachments to floats oceanic
floating larvae stages in marine life cycles oceanic
slow changes in an isolated gene pool isolation
sexual preference within the same gene pool Sympatric speciation
most important evolutionary factor climate
temperature primary factors
moisture primary factors
deserts and jungles as barriers primary factors
affects marine, terrestrial organisms sea level changes
transgression creates barriers sea level changes
regression opens pathways sea level changes
in part a climatic effect glaciation
glaciers destroy things in their path glaciation
cools climate and the deep ocean glaciation
mountain building events diastrophism
land bridges - e.g. Panama uplift diastrophism
barriers against migration diastrophism
climate modification diastrophism
Plate tectonics Large scale factors contributing to mass extinctions
changes in climate Plate tectonics
isolation of populations Plate tectonics
land bridges Plate tectonics
Food chain (food webs) disruptions Large scale factors contributing to mass extinctions
small population size Food chain (food webs) disruptions
low variability (diversity) Food chain (food webs) disruptions
narrow adaptation - over specialization Food chain (food webs) disruptions
isolation Food chain (food webs) disruptions
competition Food chain (food webs) disruptions
unrestrained predation Food chain (food webs) disruptions
disease Food chain (food webs) disruptions
Extreme, rapid changes in physical environment Large scale factors contributing to mass extinctions
atmospheric changes changes in physical environment
changing climate changes in physical environment
volcanic dust changing climate
carbon dioxide changing climate
meteor impact dust changing climate
compositional changes - CO2; O2 changing climate
solar radiation changes Large scale factors contributing to mass extinctions
sea level changes Large scale factors contributing to mass extinctions
lethal increases in chemicals Large scale factors contributing to mass extinctions
acidification of oceans, Greenhouse effects CO2
Permo-Triassic extinctions?? hydrogen sulfide
nutrient depletion in the oceans Large scale factors contributing to mass extinctions
cause reduced phytoplankton production due to lack of upwelling; water mass stability lack of upwelling; water mass stability tectonic stability and reduced runoff nutrient depletion
6. ice accumulations (loss) - ocean temperature changes and sea-level changes Large scale factors contributing to mass extinctions
low magnetic fields cause strange effects Magnetic Field Relationships
extinctions observed near magnetic polarity changes Magnetic Field Relationships
during geomagnetic reversals Cosmic ray effects
high influx at top of atmosphere - greatest at poles Magnetic Field Relationships
mesons, protons, electrons atomic particles
effects rapidly reduced by depth of water Magnetic Field Relationships
radiation from solar flares Magnetic Field Relationships
dumping of Van Allen radiation belts Magnetic Field Relationships
atmospheric exposure to the solar wind Solar Wind Magnetic Field Relationships
from the Sun - protons and electrons Plasma stream
increase in production of radioisotopes at 0 magnetic field Magnetic Field Relationships
Killer algae as the ‘kill mechanism’ for 4 of the ‘big 5’ mass extinctions Controls
Toxic algal blooms killer algea
during planet warming Controls
sea level fluctuations Controls
excess nutrient supply events; phosphorus and others Controls
high CO2 Controls
death Controls
oxygen depletion by bacteria during decay in oceans Controls
anoxia Controls
identified with cyanobacteria - stromatolites anoxia
toxins produced can kill land organisms anoxia
they are volatilized and are absorbed by plants and animals toxins
Red Queen Hypothesis (Leigh Van Valen, 1970s) controls
evolution and speciation progress at a steady rate Red Queen Hypothesis
species do NOT become better adapted Red Queen Hypothesis
Tested by Venditti et al., 2010 Red Queen Hypothesis
Driving Evolution are steady mutations in organisms Red Queen Hypothesis
b. Extinction and Speciation are rare environmental events that cause reproductive isolation Red Queen Hypothesis
separation of continents; reproductive isolation
genetic change in mating preference; reproductive isolation
kingdom, phylum, class, order modern system
Created by: lmulke1