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What is the purpose of the nasal conchae? Help increase the surface area for attachment of the mucous membrane
What is the purpose of the mucous membrane? Filters, warms, and moistens incoming air, traps foreign particles
Where is the trachea located? Extending from the larynx to the bronchi in front of the esophagus
What is occurring during inspiration? Atmospheric pressure forces air into the lungs.
How do gases diffuse? From regions of high partial pressure toward regions of lower partial pressure.
How is most carbon dioxide is transported? In the form of bicarbonate ions.
What muscles act to change the size of the thorax? Intercostals
What is the trachea maintained in an open position by? Rings of hyaline cartilage
Which substance greatly reduces the attractive forces between the water molecules lining the alveoli so that they will not collapse? Surfactant
How many lobes does each lung have? The right lung has 3 lobes, the left lung has 2 lobes
Where are the apex and base of each lung? Apex- near clavicle Base- rests on diaphragm
What gas is expelled by the lungs? Carbon dioxide
What is the useful gas taken from the air? Oxygen
What is the molecule HbO2? Oxyhemoglobin- oxygen bound to hemoglobin as it travels in the blood
What is oxygen used for? It is used in body tissues for cellular respiration that produces CO2 as a waste product.
What gas moves from the alveoli and into the capillaries? Oxygen
What gas moves from the capillaries and into the alveoli? Carbon dioxide
What are gas exchanges made by? Diffusion
What is the anterior palate is made up of? The maxillary and palatine bones
What are the functions of the paranasal sinuses? Lighten the skull, act as resonance chambers for speech, produce mucus that drains into the nose
What is the rate of respiration is controlled by? Set rates in the pons and medulla , oxygen sensor in the aorta and carotid artery, carbon dioxide levels in the blood
Where is the actual site of gas exchanges in the lungs? Alveoli
What type of tissue are the walls of the alveoli composed of? Simple squamous epithelium
In healthy lungs, this is always lower than atmospheric pressure, otherwise lungs would collapse. Intrapleural pressure
As the diaphragm contracts, how does it move? What does this do to volume and pressure? Moves downward, increasing the volume of the thorax and decreasing the pressure