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micro exam III

innate (nonspecific) immunity refers to defenses that are present at birth, always present and available to provide rapid response
adaptive (specific) immunity refers to defenses that involve specific recognition of a microbe once it has breached the innate immunity defenses
formed elements cells and cell fragments in blood
granulocyte leukocytes with large granules in their cytoplasm and can be seen under microscope
neutrophil granulocyte - granules stain pale lilac, also commonly called polymorphonuclear leukocytes or polymorphs, highly phagocytic and motile, active in inital stages of infection
basophils granules stain blue-purple, important in inflamation and allergy response, release histamine
eosinophils granules stain red-orange produce toxic proteins against certain parasites, such as helminths...keeps worms out
dendritic cells have long extensions, abundant on the epidermis, mucous membranes, the thymus and lymph nodes, destroy microbes by phagocytosis and to initiate adaptive immunity responses...classified with granulocytes
agranulocyte have granules in cytoplasm but the granules aren't visible under microscope
monocytes not actively phagocytic until they leave circulating blood, enter body tissues and mature in macrophages
macrophages dispose of worn out blood cells
lymphocytes agranular, include natural killer cells, T cells, and B cells, NK cells have the ability to kill a wide variety of infected body cenlls and certain tumor cells
T cells & B cells agranulocytes, not phagocytic but play a key role in adaptive immunity, occur in lymphatic system, T cells direct attack...B cells antibodies, NK cells will attack anything not part of you
platelets blood clot formation
phagocytosis greek word, "eat and cell", WBC's ingest microorganisms or other particles such as debris by a cell
fixed macrophages aka histiocytes found in the liver (kupffer's cells) lungs, nervous system, bronchial tubes, spleen
wandering macrophages roam the tissues and gather at sites of infection or inflammation
chemotaxis chemical attraction of phagocytes to microorganisms
ingestion plasma membrane of the phagocyte extends projections called pseudopods that engulf the microorganism
phagosome psuedopods meet and fuse, surrounding the microorganism with a sac
phagolysosome phagosome and lysosome membranes fuse to form a single larger structure
parenteral route establish entry by ways of puntures, wounds, bites, cuts, surgery
ID 50 virulence of a microbe is expressed...infectious dose for 50
potency of a toxin is often expressed as the LD 50, lethal dose for 50% of the population
means pathogens have of attaching themselves to host tissues at their portal of entry adherence
plasma protein formed by liver to form blood clots coagulases
bacterial enzymes that break down fibrin and digest blood clots formed by the body to isolate infection kinases
enzyme secreted by bacteria, streptococci, hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid, a type of polysaccharide that holds together certain cells of the body, like CT hyalunronidase
facilitates the spread of gas gangrene collagenase
antigenic variation altering the surface antigens, so it will be unaffected by anitbodies
siderophores sequester iron
toxigenicity the capacity of microorganisms to produce toxins
toxemia presence of toxins in the blood
antibodies that provide immunity to exotoxins antitoxins
released when gram negative bacteria die and their call walls undergo lysis, heat stable, endotoxins
inclusion bodies granules found in the cytoplasm or nucleus of some infected cells...viral parts, nucleic acids or proteins
substance produced by virus infected cells interferons
toxin produced by fungi ergot
neurotoxin produced by algae, such as Alexandrium saxitoxin
defenses present at birth, quick to respond innate (nonspecific) immunity
defenses that involve specific recognition of a microbe once it has breached the innate immunity defenses, slow to respond adaptive (specific) immunity
natural killer cells, T cells, B cells lymphocytes
ingestion of a microorganism or other debris by a cell phagocytosis
chemotaxis chemical attraction of phagocytes to microorganisms
residual body indigestible waste discharged outside the cell by phagolysosome
substances that cause vasodilation and increased permeability of blood vessels kinins
substances released by damaged cells,intensify the effects of histamine and kinins and help phagocytes move through capillary walls prostaglandins
small double stranded circular DNA molecules plasmids
Created by: coryhagen