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soc real world ch 8

Sociology The Real World Stein Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
An objective measure of poverty, defined by the inability to meet minimal standards for food, shelter, clothing, or health care. absolute deprivation
The system of segregation of racial and ethnic groups that was legal in South Africa between 1948 and 1991. apartheid
A description characterizing workers who perform manual labor. blue-collar
A form of social stratification in which status is determined by one's family history and background and cannot be changed. caste system
Awareness of one's own social status and that of others; also, the recognition of social inequality on the part of the oppressed, leading to revolutionary action. class consciousness
A social system with very little opportunity to move from one class to another. closed system
The tastes, habits, expectations, skills, knowledge, and other cultural dispositions that help us gain advantages in society. cultural capital
Entrenched attitudes that can develop among poor communities and lead the poor to accept their fate rather than attempting to improve their lot. culture of poverty
The removal of voting rights or other rights of citizenship, either temporarily or permanently, through economic, political, or legal means. disenfranchisement
A system of social stratification based on a hereditary nobility who were responsible for and served by a lower stratum of forced laborers called serfs. feudal system
The occupational movement of individuals or groups within a social class. horizontal social mobility
Movement between social classes that occurs from one generation to the next. intergenerational mobility
The movement between social classes that occurs over the course of an individual's lifetime. intragenerational mobility
Argues that people have a deep need to see the world as orderly, predictable, and fair, which creates a tendency to view victims of social injustice as deserving of their fates. just-world hypothesis
A system in which rewards are distributed based on merit. meritocracy
Composed primarily of "white-collar" workers with a broad range of incomes; they constitute about 30 percent of the U.S. population. middle class
A social system with ample opportunities to move from one class to another. open system
The social honor people are given because of their membership in well-regarded social groups. prestige
A relative measure of poverty based on the standard of living in a particular society. relative deprivation
The geographical separation of the poor from the rest of the population. residential segregation
A loosely knit movement that opposes consumerism and encourages people to work less, earn less, and spend less in accordance with nonmaterialistic values. simplicity movement
The most extreme form of social stratification, based on the legal ownership of people. slavery
A system of stratification based on access to resources such as wealth, property, power, and prestige. social class
The unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of a society. social inequality
The movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchal system of social classes. social mobility
The tendency of social classes to remain relatively stable as social class status is passed down from one generation to the next. social reproduction
The division of society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy. social stratification
A measure of an individual's place within a social class system; often used interchangeably with "class." socioeconomic status (SES)
A situation in which there are serious differences between the different elements of an individual's socioeconomic status. status inconsistency
Changes in the social status of large numbers of people due to structural changes in society. structural mobility
The poorest Americans who are chronically unemployed and may depend on public or private assistance; they constitute about 5 percent of the U.S. population. underclass
Mostly professionals and managers, who enjoy considerable financial stability; they constitute about 14 percent of the U.S. population. upper-middle class
A largely self-sustaining group of the wealthiest people in a class system; in the United States they constitute about 1 percent of the population and possess most of the wealth of the country. upper class
The movement between different class statuses, often called either upward mobility or downward mobility. vertical social mobility
A description characterizing workers and skilled laborers in technical and lower-management jobs. white-collar
Mostly "blue-collar" or service industry workers who are less likely to have a college degree; they constitute about 30 percent of the U.S. population. working class
Poorly educated workers who work full-time but remain below the poverty line; they constitute about 20 percent of the U.S. population. working poor
Weber would argue that person who belongs to an exclusive country club would belong to a higher social class due to that membership's _______________ prestige
The tendency of social classes to remain relatively stable as social class status is passed down from one generation to the next is called: social reproduction
A person from a lower socioeconomic status who is unaware of a job opening that is only posted on the Internet is an example of the impact of __________ on social mobility. the digital divide
The United States, where social mobility is possible, is perceived to be: an open system
The term that sociologists use to measure an individual's place within a social class system is called: socioeconomic status
The movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchal system of social classes is called: social mobility
A single mother living on the streets with her two young children who does not have the means to provide adequate food and shelter for her family is experiencing: absolute deprivation
Which of the following is true concerning slavery? a) it is still legal in a few nations in the world today. b)Historically, based on race. c)it is the most extreme system of social strat. d)no longer takes place anywhere c) Slavery is the most extreme system of social stratification.
A man who has his Ph.D. in sociology, yet continues to work as a cabdriver, is an example of: status inconsistency
The belief that entrenched attitudes can develop among poor communities and lead the poor to accept their fate is called: the culture of poverty
Which of the following is one of the basic prin. of soc. strat? a)It does not persist over gen.b)It is maint through beliefs widely shared by members of society.c)It is a charac. of indiv. d)All societies use the same criteria to stratify their members. b) It is maintained through beliefs that are widely shared by members of society.
Which theorist was concerned about the new kind of social inequality that was emerging between the owners and the workers? Karl Marx
During the Great Depression, large numbers of people dropped down in social class standing. This is an example of: structural mobility.
A student with highly educated parents who pass that value of education on to her is an example of that student acquiring what Bourdieu called: cultural capital
A woman who works on an assembly line on the floor of a factory has a: blue collar job
In 2008, the Census Bureau defined the poverty line as _______ for a family of three. 17600
The American Dream legitimizes social stratification by reinforcing the idea that: everyone has the same chance to succeed and success or failure is completely determined by the individual person.
The stratification system in India that is based on hereditary and allows little to no opportunity for movement between strata is a/an: caste system
A system in which rewards are distributed based on achievements is: meritocracy
The "Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study" research has found: Moving from welfare to work is only mildly positive for families.
Children who are able to attain more education and a better paying job than their parents are experiencing: intergenerational mobility.
When a woman marries a man who is similar to her in education level and social class background she is practicing: homogamy
People from lower classes are more likely to be the victims of violent crime. t/f True
The geographic isolation of the poor from other parts of the city is called: residential segregation
The division of a society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy is called: social stratification
list Weber's three components of class status wealth power and prestige
__________ refers to a system of stratification based on access to resources such as wealth, property, power, and prestige. Social Class
upper class characteristics 1% possess the wealth
Upper middle class characteristics professionals and managers 14%
Middle class characteristics 30% white collar workers
working lower middle class characteristics 30% less likely to have college degree blue collar workers
lower class characteristics 20% lower levels of literacy
____________ is the movement between social classes that occurs over the course of an individual’s lifetime. Intragenerational mobility
_____ social mobility is the occupational movement of individuals or groups within a social class. Horizontal
_______ social mobility is the movement between social classes and is often called either upward mobility or downward mobility Vertical
_________ mobility refers to changes in the social status of large numbers of people due to structural changes in society. Structural
___________ is a relative measure of poverty based on the standards of living. Relative deprivation
____________ is an objective measure of poverty that is defined by the inability to meet minimal standards for food, shelter, clothing, or health care. Absolute deprivation
Created by: hkrawietz