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Anatomy Exam 3 2011

Cardio, ANS, PNS

3 Component of Cardiovascular System Heart, arteries, veins
Heart layers Fibrous pericardium, parietal pericardium, visceral pericardium pericardial cavity myocardium, endocardium
Structures of the heart Chordae tendinae, 4 chambers, 4 valves (Tricuspid and bicuspid, aortic and pulmonary semilunar)
cardiac cycle 1 heart beat average .8 seconds
systole vs diastole systole is contracting, diastole is resting
coronary arteries hearts direct blood supply (supply outside of heart)
Myocardial infraction heart attack, heart tissue is starved of oxygen and has died, cannot replace itself. Causes: artherosclerosis= a build up of plaque which blocks artery
plaques fatty deposits which have attached to inner lining. Causes: high cholesterol or genetics.
Blood vessels 3 types Arteries (carry Blood) Veins (carry blood) lymphatic (Carry lymph fluid)
Layer of blood vessel walls Tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia/externa
tuinca intima innermost layer, lining the lumen (simple squamous epithelium)
Tunica media Smooth muscle with some elastin mixed in
tunica externa outtermost layer, areolar CT, specialized blood vessels which supply tunica externa
Vaso vasorum network of arteries and veins which supply the outer layer of larger vessels.
Artery vs vein pressure Arteries are under higher pressure than veins, artery walls are thicker. Tunica media of arteries is thicker than that of veins
Artery vs vein shape Arteries are more rounded, veins are more flattened.
Artery vein valves Veins have valves, arteries do not. these valves are tunica intima flaps which keep moving blood towards the heart.
Artery types, progression from heart, branch to next Elastic arteries to muscular arteries to arterioles(smallest of arteries) to capillaries
Capillaries Tissue is able to take oxygen and nutrients from blood, capillaries empty into the smallest of veins (venules)
Elastic arteries large arteries near near ex aorta
Where is the highest concentration of elastin Tunica media
muscular arteries supply organs and have less elastin, this results in more smooth muscle cells. smooth muscle helps control how much blood is going to each region of the body
elastic lamine of either side of tunica media internal (between intima and media) external (between media and externa)
Arterioles Larger vs smaller larger has all 3 tunica layers, smaller has only tunica media and endothelium cells.
capillary beds end of the road drop off point for all the stuff blood is carrying. very thin walled structure single cells in diameter. Smooth muscle sphincters control flow through capillary bed
Capillaries make up endothelium with a basement membrane
continuous capillary tight junctions, connect simple squamous, some gaps for blood to flow
Fenstrated capillary much leakier, pores through capillary bed itself still has tight junctions, complete basement membrane
Sinusoid Leakiest, intercellular clefts, gaps between cells are huge. Some tight junctions. Basement membrane is incomplete w/ large gaps. (Spleen)
Flow of blood Heart-->Elastic arteries-->muscular arteries-->arterioles-->capillaries
Veins smallest to largest *note all veins have very thin tunica media venules, medium veins, larger veins(heart), valves, portal system
Varicose veins Valves and veins stretched blood pools.
Blood function Distribution of O2 and CO2, nutrients, wastes, hormones. Helps regulate body temperature. Immune system
plasma non cellular component 55% of blood, extracellular matrix. Fluid in which all cells are supported mainly water, nutrients, hormones, wastes.
Erthrocytes-disc shape dimple in middle high surface area 40-45% of blood red blood cells. No nucleus and n organelles in mature form.Allows them to carry gases throughout body. Do not require O2 to survive. mainly hemoglobin(protein)
Hematopiesis a new red blood cell formation red marrow in spongy bone (contains stem cells)
Leukocytes white blood cells+Platelets= buffy coat very small component of blood
Blood types A(antibody B),B(antibody a),O(antibody A and B),AB(no antibody necessary)
RH factor Protein on red blood cells, if this protein is present +blood type, if protein in absent - blood type ex AB negative
Pregnancy complications of blood type if mother is RH negative her body can create antibodies which potentially attack fetus.
Rho Gam antibodies injected into the mother which prevent her from creating her own antibodes.
White blood cells( leukocytes) Have organelles and nucleus, important in immune system
Diapedesis white blood cells have the ability to squeeze between gaps and leave blood vessels.
Platelets Fragments of megakaryocytes important in ability to form clot and stop bleeding.
Aneima Reduced red blood cells typically due to lack of iron in the body. Iron is necessary to create hemoglobin
Sickle cell anemia result of abnormally shaped red blood cells, major genetic component. Some cells take on a sickel shape which causes clotting and makes cells inefficient O2 carriers.
NERVOUS SYSTEM functions Sensory input
Afferent information sensory info traveling towards the brain
Interneurons integrate information Process and interpret sensory info within central nervous system
Motor output Response dictated by CNS, takes place in organs
2 Divisions of nervous system CNS-brain and spinal cord PNW- cranial nerves + all branches and spinal nerves + all branches
Neurons Excitable cells, carry impulse, conduct electrical impulses, do not divide and replace, can regrow certain damaged part but cannot replace dead cell
Supporting ells Non excitable but help neurons function
Neuron make up Cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath
cell body of neuron contains nucleus if damaged cell will die.
Dendrites 0-many carries impulses towards the cell body, receptive
Axon carry info away from cell body 1 per neuron up to 4ft long axon terminal release neurotransmitters(communication)
Myelin sheaths PNS Schwanna cells (PNS)- supporting cell of PNS, wraps around axon assist with rapid conduction, very insulted
Myelin sheaths CNS Oligodendrocytes(CNS, insulated each will wrap around multiple acons.
MS myelin sheath in CNS being broken down White blood cells attack oligodendrocytes.
Nerve a collection of neurons in the PNS, Axon sction
Tracts collection of neurons in the CNS. axon section
Structural classification of neurons # of dendrites
multipolar Multiple dendrites most common motor neurons and interneurons
Bipolar 2 processes 1 dendrite/ axon rare retina of the eye for sensory function
Unipolar 1 axon no dendrite typical sensory neuron
Ganglion cluster of cell bodies from multiple neurons
Somatic motor Skeletal muscles, skin, sensory (eye)
somatic sensory touh, pain, temperature
visceral motor organs and structures inside the body cavity
visceral sensory check
Nerve composition Sensory, motor, mixed(typical nerve)
Mixed nerve vascularized contains neurons of all types
endonuerium Thin reticular CT surrounding an axon and its sheath
Perineurium fibrous CT surrounding fasicles(group of axons)
Epineurium dense irr. Ct surrounds whole nerve
Synapse site where neurons communicate
Presnyaptic neuron Neuron before synapse
Postsynaptic neuron Neuron after synapse
Neurotransmitters Axon terminal contains vesicles with neurotransmitters (chemical messenger) Relased into synaptic cleft and is picked up by receptors on postsynaptic neuron.
Types of Synapses 3 types acondendritic, axosomatic, axoaxonic
acondendritic most common, between presynaptic axon and postsynaptic dendrite
Axosomatic between presynaptic axon and postsynaptic cell body
Axoaxonic between presynaptic axon and postsynaptic axon. Not common
CNS supporting cells Astrocytes surround neurons an capillaries take up and release ion, sugars to nourish neurons uptake excess neurotransmitters most abundant.
Microglia CNS Phagocytes which engulf and remove invading organisms and dead or damaged neural tissue Macrophages
Ependymal CNS Simple cuboidal epi. Ciliated Line the central hollow portions o CNS (ventricles of the brain and central canal of spinal cord) circulation of cerebro-spinal fluid
Oligodendrocytes CNS Creat myelin sheath
Supporting Cells of PNS Satellite cells, schwanna cells
Satellite cells PNS insulate cell body Ganglia contain many cell bodies from many neurons.
Schwaan cells Myelin sheath in PNS
Tic Douloureux Blood vessels rub upon trigeminal nerve root (face) Satellite cells of sensory neurons in face have broken down causing crossover information PAIN or spasms in face
fMRI functional measure of blood flow Oxygen need by cell
Brain basic protection Bone, skull and vertebrae
(Brain)Meninges Protection membranes which envelopes CNS
Dura Mater 2 layers of dense irreg. CT fused except where there is a blood sinus
Arachnoid mater Reticular Ct Spider web like extensions between dura mater and pia mater Arachnoid vili Project into dural sinuses allowing CSF to be reabsorbed into blood
Pia mater thin layer of areolar CT clings to brain surfae very vascular
Meningitis Bacterial or viral infection of the meninges viral-more common bacterial- more serious, antibiotics can treat if they are used quickly
Subdural space Below dura mater above arachnoid mater
Subarachnoid mater below arachnoid mater above pia mater filled with CSF
Blood brain barrier capillaries of brain lack intercellular clefts tight junctions
White matter Myelinated axons tracts=fiber tracts
Gray matter cell bodies dendrites Glial cells unmyelinated axons cortex and brain nuclei in spinal cord no outer cortex
Brain white vs gray matter Outer white matter Inner gray matter
Ventricles Spaces within the brain Lateral(paired) 3rd cerebral aqueduct 4th Central canal and subarachnoid space
CSF produced by choroid plexus(capillary network) CSF is a blood filtrate nutreitnrich (nourishes brain) continually produced cushions brain
Ependymal cells Epithelium of ventricles Ciliated to move CSF removal of wastes
Hydrocephaly CSF overproduced or not removed appropriately increased pressure in brain which can cause damage. in babies head can expand causes damage at a slower rate.
Telencephalon Cerebrum
brain lobes 5 major lobes Temporal Frontal Parietal Occipital insula
Cerebrum/telencephalon cortex, white matter, brain basal nuclei, 80% brain mass 2 hemispheres, Higher brain functions
Lateralization One side cortex is more involved than the other in certain functions 90% of population L-details;math;language; logic R-big picture, artistic/musical skills visual spatial skills
tracts in the brain white matter myelinated axons information highway
Diencephalon thalmus Hypothalmus Epithalamus
Metencephalon Pons Cerebellum
Myelencephalon Medulla Oblongata
Brainstem midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
Telencephalon 3 fibers Projection fibers, Commisural fibers, Association fibers
Projection Fibers Link cerebral cortex to any area outside the cerebrum Decussation- crossover of fibers from right to left
Commisural fibers Connects corresponding areas of 2 hemispheres. if severed the hemispheres cannot communicate.
Association Fibers How regions withing projection fibers of a single hemisphere communicate
Motor areas Dictate voluntary motor response
Sensory areas Interpret sensory information
Association Receive and integrate information from multiple areas
Frontal brain area Primary motor cortex Premotor cortex Prefrontal cortex
Primary motor cortex Conscious control of skeletal muscles Motor homunculus- map of motor cortex
Premotor cortex Broca;s area Coordinate repetitive learned motor skills Damage- loss of skills Brocas area- controls movements necessary for speech
Prefrontal cortex personality Cognition intellect impulse control
frontal lobotomy Phineas Gage destroy a portion of lobe to "deal with" personality disorders
Parietal Region of brain Separated from frontal by central sulcus. Primary somatosensory cortex and association area
Primary somatosensory cortex and association area interpret sensory information, touch temp pain pressure Association area- use memories of past to decide appropriate response Sensory homuncules
Temporal region of the brain Auditory cortex, olfactory cortex. Bot association areas
Auditory and gustatory cortex +assc area Auditory receives sounds info from inner ear gustatory- smell receptors in nasal cavity tied to limbic system (emotional brain)
Wernicke's area in auditory cortex Understand spoken word
Occipital region of the brain Visual cortex -receives sensory info from retina of eye analyze color and forms
Insula region of the brain Gustatory cortex- receptors on tastes buds Limbic area Basal Ganglia
Basal Ganglia Gray matter nuclei located within the cerebrum unconscious motor control of skeletal muscles.works with cerebral cortex to control and regulate movements.
Degenerative conditions Parkinson's disease pathway to basal ganglia has broken down. Too little motor drive Lack of dopamine
Limbic system Cerebrum and diencephalon involved in emotions Amygdala Hippocampus
Amydala and hippocampus Amygdala- process fear and generate a response to fear. Hippocampus- memories of past facts and events
Diencephalon make up (thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus) Mostly gray matter
Thalamus gateway to cerebral cortex
Epithalamus Pineal gland Endocrine and melatonin
Hypothalamus endocrine Visceral control center Hunger thirst sleep/wake cycle Limbic system
Midbrain/mesencephalon superior colliculi-visual reflexes inferior colliculi- auditory reflexes
Metencephalon (Pons Cerebellum) Pons- control of respiration, relay motor info to cerebellum from cerebrum Cerebellum- outer cortex, with an inner white matter smooth and coordinate muscle movements equilibrium
Myelencephalon Medulla oblongata- visceral motor functions (heart rate, regulates blood pressure, swallowing)
Stroke interruption of blood flow to region of brain which results in tissue death.
Spinal cord info travel route PNS- ascending sensory pathway->brain Brain->descending motor pathway->PNS
Enlargements of the spinal cord Cervical Lumbar
spinal nerves 31 pairs rami vs roots
spinal nerve roots cervical 8 pair C1-C8 Thoracic 12 pair T1-T12 Lumbar 5 pair L1-L5 Sacral 5 pair S1-S5 Cocygeal 1 pair C0
Rami vs roots spinal nerve splits into dorsal and ventral ramus
nerve plexus network of nerves formed from ventral rami of spinal nerves -cervical -brachial sacral lumbar sympathetic trunk chain ganglia
Cervical Formed from ventral rami of c1-c5 supplies neck and posterior part of head
Brachial ventral rami of the c5-t1 supplies upper limbs
Sacral ventral rami of L4-s4 Posterior lower limbs
Lumbar ventral rami of L1-L4 anterior lower limbs
stmpathetic trunk chain ganglia Branch of ventral rami Part of ANS
Polio Caused by viru destroys motor neurons muscles controlled by these neuron unable to function
Post polio Later in life neurons break down due to overuse compensating for neuron lost during polio outbreak. return of polio symptoms
Created by: andrew.klymkowky