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Organic Molecules

Molecule A group of atoms that is held together by covalent bonds
Organic molecule If the bonding occurs between two or more carbon atoms
Macromolecules Groups of molecules that are joined together.
What are the four main macromolecules of life? Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, Lipids, and Protein
What is the ratio of the atoms in carbohydrates? 1 carbon atom : 2 hydrogen atoms : 1 oxygen atom
What are simple carbohydrates known as? Monosaccharides
What are complex carbohydrates known as? Polysaccharides
What are examples of a monosaccharide? Glucose, fructose, and ribose
What are examples of a polysaccharide? Glycogen, starch, and cellulose
What are monosaccharides and polysaccahrides used for? Mono- Short term energy storage Poly- Long term energy storage
What are Nucleic acids formed from? Nucleotide monomers
What are nucleotides? They are chemical compounds that are primarily comprised of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
What are the two main types or nucleic acids? Ribonucleic acids (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA)
What are the five nitrogen bases found in both nucleic acids? Adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G)
What is the difference between RNA and DNA? RNA has Uracil (U) instead of thymine (T), and is one stranded unlike DNA
What are lipids? They are organic macromolecules that are insoluble in water
What are the most important lipids? Fats
What are the two types of fats? Saturated and unsaturated fats
What are proteins? They are organic macromolecules that are composed of amino acid monomers.
Hormones Are protein-containing substances that play a role in the regulation of cellular functions
What are antibodies? They are substances containing proteins that play a roles i defense
What do enzymes do? They help speed up cellular reactions
What is an active site? They are part of the enzyme the helps it speed up the reactions. It matches the folds in the substrate's surface, like a key and a lock.
What are proteins involved in? Cell signaling, cell transport, immune responses, and the cell cycle
Created by: brittanykremer