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Reading Terms

Kansas Reading Assessment Terms

Alliteration A poetic device where the first consonant sounds are repeated, as in from stem to stern
Allusion A reference to some event, person, place, or artistic work, which is not explained by the writer but relies on the reader’s familiarity with what is mentioned
Analogy A partial similarity, as the computer is like the brain
Antagonist The character that opposes the hero/heroine
Assonance The repetition of similar vowel sounds in poetry
Autobiography A biography of a person narrated by himself/herself
Bandwagon Hopes to convince the audience to do or believe something because everyone else is doing it
Bias A personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment
Bibliography The works or a list of works referred to in a text or consulted by the author in its production
Cause-Effect Something or someone that brings about a particular result, and the result of that action or event; a text structure
Character A person or animal represented in or acting in a story, drama, etc.
Cliché A trite or overused expression
Climax The highest dramatic tension or a major turning point in the action
Compare/contrast A literary technique of placing together like people, places, or ideas to show common or different features; a text structure
Conflict The opposition of persons or forces that gives rise to the dramatic action in a drama or fiction
Connotation The emotional meaning of a word
Context Clues Information from the text that assists in identifying a word or word group
Crisis/Turning Moment A point at which significant change occurs
Denotation The dictionary meaning of a word
Denouement/Resolution The outcome or solution of the plot
Description A comparison in writing or speech that gives a picture of a character or event
Direct Characterization Tells the audience what the personality of the character is
Dynamic Character A character marked by usually continuous and productive activity or change
Exposition Dialogue, description, etc., that gives the audience or reader the background of the characters and the present situation
Expository Text A piece of writing that explains or informs
Falling Action The events of a dramatic or narrative plot following the climax
First Person Point of View A point of view in which and “I” or “we” serves as the narrator of a piece of fiction; allows a reader to feel very close to a specific character’s point of view
Flashback A technique of disrupting the chronology of a narrative by shifting to an earlier time in order to introduce information
Flat Character A character that represents a single trait (or very few traits), such as a loyal sidekick
Foreshadowing The technique of giving clues to coming evens in a body of writing
Hyperbole An intentionally exaggerated figure of speech, such as I have told you a million times
Idiom An expression that does not mean what it literally says, such as, “He put his foot in his mouth”
Inciting Incident A plot element that arrives near the beginning of a drama or story; begins the action and sets up the main question
Indirect Characterization Shows things that reveal the personality of the character
Inference The act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises know or assumed to be true
Inference A logical guess based on evidence based on evidence in the text
Irrelevancy The quality or state of being unrelated to a matter being considered
Jargon Speech or writing having unusual or pretentious vocabulary, convoluted phrasing, and vague meaning
Loaded Language Usually contains words with strong positive or negative connotations that unfairly frame words into limited or biased contexts
Main Idea The chief topic of a passage expressed or implied in a word or phrase
Metaphor A figure of speech in which a word or phrase meaning one kind of object or idea is used in place of another to suggest a similarity between them; comparing two things not using like or as
Mood The emotional state of mind expressed by an author or artist in his/her work
Narrative Text A story that is told or written
Onomatopoeia Using words that sound like their meaning, such as purr, buzz, hiss
Overstatement To state in too strong terms; exaggerate
Oxymoron A phrase combining two contradictory terms
Paradox An apparently contradictory statement that suggests a truth, as life is but a dream; a self-contradictory statement, as include me out
Paraphrase A restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form
Personification The representation of ideas, animals, or objects as human beings by endowing them with human qualities
Persuasive Text Writing that seeks to convince the reader to adopt a particular opinion or perform a certain action
Plagiarism The act of stealing and passing off the ideas or words of another as one’s own
Point of View The standpoint from which the actions of a poem or story are related
Prefix An affix attached to the front of a word that changes its meaning
Primary Source Firsthand or direct evidence concerning a topic, an even, a person’s life, original works of literature, and historical facts
Problem Solution A format for writing in which the author states a problem and a solution or solutions to solving the problem are offered; a text structure
Propaganda Writing that directly advocates a certain doctrine as the solution to some political problem
Protagonist The leading character in a work of fiction
Relevancy Relation to the matter at hand; staying within a task or topic
Restatement To state again in another way
Rising Action The part of a literary work that begins with the exposition and sets the stage for climax
Root The basic part of a word that usually carries the main component of meaning
Round Character A complex character displaying inconsistencies and internal conflicts
Satire A kind of literature that ridicules human folly or vice with the purpose of brining about reform or of keeping others from falling into similar folly or vice
Secondary Source Published books or articles by an author who makes personal interpretation about a topic based on primary sources
Sequence The order of events in particular occurrences
Simile A figure of speech in which things different in kind or quality are compared by the use of the word like or as
Static Character A character that does not undergo important change in the course of the story
Stereotype An author’s method of treating a character so that the character is immediately identified with a group
Subplots A subordinate plot in a play
Suffix An affix attached to the end of a word
Summarize To cover the main points succinctly
Supporting Details Small pieces of information that one by one assist the reader in seeing the whole concept or picture
Symbolism The use, in literature, of objects, characters, and situations that represent something beyond themselves
Technical Text Nonfiction writing that describes how to do a task
Testimonial Hopes to convince the audience to buy something by having a famous person to endorse a product or idea
Text Features Graphic features of written material designed to assist the reader’s understanding of the text (italics, sub-titles, etc. )
Theme A central idea developed in a work of fiction
Thesis/Hypothesis The statement that must be proved, supported and/or defended in the body of work
Third Person Limited Omniscient Point of View A method of storytelling in which the narrator knows only the thoughts and feelings of a single character, while other characters are presented only externally
Third Person Omniscient Point of View A method of storytelling in which the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all the characters in the story
Tone The author’s implicit attitude toward the reader or the people/places/events in a work
Transfer of Ideas Transferring good looks, feelings or ideas to the person who the propaganda is mean to influence
Created by: nashj