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Astronomy Brock

Second Mid-term Astronomy for Brock University Students Year 1

The Moon’s orbit is tipped at relative degree to the Earth’s orbital plane? 5 Degrees
How long is the Moon above/below the Earth’s orbital about half the month
The points where the Moon passes through the Earth’s orbital plane are called nodes
At the part of the Earth’s orbit where the line of Nodes points towards the Sun what eclipses are possible? solar eclipse and lunar eclipse
Eclipses occur in pairs with the solar eclipse followed approximately how many days later by a lunar eclipse, or vice-versa? 14 days
The Moon’s orbit keeps nearly the same direction what happens to the nodes? the line of nodes keeps nearly the same direction
As a result how many times a year does the line of nodes passes through the Sun? Twice
The motions of the heavens were studied as a form of what? worship, divination and kept track of the seasons
What famous buildings have some form of astrological alignments? Ring Stones in Sahara, Stonehenge, Egyptian Pyramids, Aztec Pyramids and Temples
What did Thales of Miletus say about the Universe? The universe is rational and the human mind can understand it
What did Pythagoras say? Many things in nature are governed by mathematical relations
What did Aristotle say about the universe? The earth is stationary; everything else moves around it
Aristarchus of Samos proposition? Proposed that the earth rotated on its axis and moves around the sun (heliocentric model) The sun is also farther away from the Earth than the moon
Aristarchus was able to deduce what observation? The sun is 20x larger than the moon, Earth is only 3x the size of the moon, the sun must be bigger thus we rotate around the sun
Why was the heliocentric idea rejected? Contrary to the geocentric view of Aristotle, and there was no stellar parallax (change in position of an object caused by the change in position of the observer) was detected
Eratosthenes was the first to determine what? determined the radius of the earth
What is Prograde motion? planets move eastward relative to the stars
What is Retrograde motion? stars appear to move opposite direction
What was the problem with the geocentric view? couldn't fit observed motions of prograde and retrograde motions; created epicycles lasting 1300 years
What other objections lay in the heliocentric model? earth would lose moon (no sense of gravity at this time), No stellar parallax, Ptolemaic tables better at predicting the positions of the planets
Why was Ptolemanic tables better at predicting planet positions? planetary orbits are not perfect circles and the sun is not quite at the centre; tables consistently revised because they were wrong
What was Tycho Brahe known for? greatest naked eye observer in history of astronomy; used mural quadrant to measure angles to within .5 minute of arc (1 min of arc is 1/60 degree)
What happened when the mural quadrant was used? results averaged together to eliminate errors, gained accurate data on planetary orbits
What was Keplers three laws? Planets move in elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse, the orbital speed of a planet varies; a line joining the sun and the planet sweeps over equal areas in equal times, orbital period is related to its orbit size
What was Keplers third law formulated from? formulated by Newton .. used to measure masses of planets, satellites, stars, black holes, etc...
Who was Galileo? creator of the modern scientific method
What did Galileo build? telescope in 1609 (apparatus)
What was Galileo's important observations? Venus shows all phases (contrary to Ptolemaic model), found mountains and craters on moon, found 4 of Jupiters satellites, milky way had many stars
What other observations did Galileo make? Stars much greater distance than planets, and found sunspots;concluded sun must be spinning
What did Isaac Newton discover? gravity and motion laws
What was Newton's law of motion? to change the speed of an object or the direction of its motion a net total force is needed
What formula did Newton use? a (acceleration)= v2/r (velocity squared divided by radius)
Created by: steviewonder04