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Lonestar Pharmacolog

What is Chronotropy? Heart Rate
What is Inotropy? Contractility (Stroke Volume)
What is Dromotropy? Speed of Conduction
What is Positive Chronotropy? Increase in the Rate of impulse generation at the SA node.
What is Positive Inotropy? Increased contractility (Increased Stroke Volume)
What is Positive Dromotrope? Slowing conductivity through the AV node.
What is Negative Inotrope? Decreased contractility (Decreased Stroke Volume)
What is Negative Chronotrope? Decrease in the Rate of impulse generation at the SA node.
What is Negative Dromotrope? Decrease in the Rate of Impulse generation at the AV node.
What influx causes Fast Potentials? Sodium Influx
What influx Causes Slow Potentials? Calcium Influx
Where are Slow Potentials located? Located in two dominant pacemaker cells of the heart, the SA and AV nodes.
Where do Calcium Channel Blocker medications take effect? In the slow potential influx of Calcium.
What is responsible for spontaneous generation of impulses in the SA and AV node? Slow Potentials (Since SA rate is faster than the AV node it over-rides the rate)
Where are Fast Potentials located? Occur in myocardial tissue (muscle) and the ventricular conduction (electrical)system.
What is Phase 0 in Fast Potentials? Rapid depolarization due to rapid sodium channels opening (Na+ Influx), inside of cell becomes more positive.
What is Phase 1 in Fast Potentials? Slow Potassium channels open (K+ Efflux), this marks the start of repolarization.
What is Phase 2 in Fast Potentials? Calcium ions (Ca++) enter the cell and cause a plateau (maintaining the positive charge). This delays repolarization -- important for muscle contraction.
What is Phase 3 in Fast Potentials? Calcium ions (Ca++) stops influx and Potassium (K+) rapidly exits the cell. This returns the cell membrane to its normal electrical charge.
What is Phase 4 in Fast Potentials? Represents the Resting Membrane Potential (RMP).
What is the Parasympathetic/Cholinergic Primary Neurotraansmitter? Acetycholine
What is the Sympathetic/Adrenergic Primary Neurotransmitter? Norepinephrine
List Three Parasympathetic/Cholinergic stimulant terms. Parasympathomimetic Cholinergic Parasympathetic Agoinst
List Four Parasympathetic/Cholinergic Suppressant Terms. Parasympatholytic Anticholinergic Parasympathetic Antagonist Cholinergic Blocker
List Five Sympathetic/Adrenergic Stimulant Terms. Sympathomimetic Adrenergic Sympathetic Agonist Alpha Agonist Beta Agonist
List Five Sympathetic/Adrenergic Suppressant Terms. Sympatholytic Antiadrenergic Sympathetic Antagonist Alpha Blocker Beta Blocker
Phase 2 of Fast Potentials is called what? Absolute Refractory Period
If a stimulus occurred at Phase 2 of Fast Potentials the stimulus wouldn't have an effect because? Because the Ions are all in the "wrong place".
Phase 3 of Fast Potentials is called what? Relative Refractory Period
If an unusually strong stimulus occurred at Phase 3 of Fast Potentials, enough ions are "back in the right place" for an action potential to be propagated. What does this mean? This means the if the heart were in a dysrhythmia the Relative Refractory Period is the best time to start an action potential to fix the rhythm.
How do Slow Potentials Depolarize? By the slow influx of Ca++ (slow Ca++ channels)
Where do Calcium Channel Blockers take effect? With slow potentials and the depolarization by the slow influx of Ca++.
Where do Abnormal heart rhythms arise from? Abnormal impulse formation (automaticity) Abnormal conductivity (re-entry)
What are the most common heart dysrhythmias? The Tachys and the Bradys
What would excessive parasympathetic stimulation do to the heart? Slow it down.
What drug would you use to treat bradycardia? Atropine
What is the heart's dominant pacemaker? Sinoatrial (SA)node
Which myocardial tissue has the ability to create its own electrical impulse (automaticity)? All mycocardial tissue both contractile and conductive.
At rest there are more of what kind of ion outside the cell than inside? More positive ions outside the cell than inside. This is why the cell has a slight negative charge.
What is the primary ion inside the cell? Na+ Sodium
What is the primary ion outside of the cell? K+ Potassium
Which ion is responsible for muscle contraction? Calcium Ca++
Created by: raydef44