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WGU Thinkwell

4 original facets to Scientific Inquiry Quantitative Observation; Reasoning Deductively; Experimentation; Communicating Results;
When were there ONLY qualitative observations recorded by scientists? Before 1600's
Santorio 1rst quantitative (measure of medicine)
Santorio's 1rst quantitative measurements weight and temperature of "humors"
Humors Combination of fluids determines a persons's health
Roger Bacon Made process of obervation, hypothesis, experiment, seek independent verification of results, because ancient Greek Scientists (Aristotle) thought flies were formed spontaneously from rotten meat
Francis Bacon falsified spontaneous generation
F. Bacon on Hypothesis Must be fasifiable
Central Organization Created Among Scientist in 17th century for truth by experiment rather than authority
Building Blocks of all organism structure and function Cells
emergent prooerties novel set of properties for each individual level of organization
closed systems (water cycle) predictable path to their processes and completely contained
open systems(living things) less predictable paths to their processes and is not completely contained
reductionist view an attempt to understand the world we live in as a whole through a greater understanding of the observable components
Subsystems of an Atom Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
creating a model When new phenomenon is not understood it is useful to apply the known information (the evidence) to a conjectured explanation of how the phenomenon MIGHT work
Extremely useful in creation of Hypothesis Model
Hypothesis Guess about the outcome of the change to the systemof the phenomenon being studied
Patterns emerging and Leading to new outcomes while providing a starting point Evolving
the outcome of the processes may always remain between boundaries and may even eventually settle to a particular outcome equilibrium
any sort of true representation of the phenomenon and truest representations will involve not just components, but also processes relational diagram
Scientific Inquiry includes both the studies of the: world (observation) and investigation into processes
Relational diagrams reveal relationships of time, space, matter, and/or energy.
spatial relationships maps useful for determining the positions of components in a system, but reveal no information about process
Class Diagrams relate components and their processes
flow chart diagram showing energy relationships
timeline temporal relationships represents how a component changes with time
state diagram all of the components and their associated processes but arranges them into a time-oriented configuration that make it clear when each of the processes occur in relation to each other
Darwin's Scientific Method A systematic approach to answering a research question
Darwin's Scientific Method Steps observation, hypothesis, experiment, data, conclusion
2000-200 B.C Early Science
A.D. 200-1200 Age of Theology
13th Century Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas
16th Century Francis Bacon, Nicklaus Copernicus
17th Century Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, Archbishop James Usher
Aristotle Earth, Air, Fire, Water
Thomas Aquinas and Albertus Magnus Natural truth=Nature; Revealed Truth=theology
Roger Bacon reject religous dogma and look at the world
Francis Bacon experimentalism is a way to verify and test all things
Galileo Galilei Copenicus: Earth is round and revolves around sun...punished for these beliefs
Archbishop James Usher Earth created in 4004 BC
Catarophism Earth's Landscape is shaped by global catatrophes
Gradualism Earth's geological features are a result of slow, continuous processes
Charles Lyell gradualism expanded into uniformitarianism
geology groundwork for Darwin's theory of evolution
John Ray fossils were remnants of once living organisms
George Cuvier catarophism
James Hutton gradualsim
Characteristics indicating life order, reproduction, growth, development, energy use, responce to environment and homeostasis
Homeostasis stable internal environment is maintained within the body
Organisms maintain Homeostasis by nutrients, wastes, temperature, immune system, reproductive cycles
countercurrent exchange system opposite flow of adjacent fluids in oreder to maximize rates of transfer between two fluid systems
Set point violatin triggers homeostatic responces in the body
possitive feedback loop effector elicts a responce to a stumulus with exaggerations to stimulus
negative feedbacy look effector elicts a response to a stimulus with removal of stimulus
endotherms organisms that regulater their temperature internally, while ectotherms though their environment
3 major roles of digestive system ingestion, digestion, absorption
Ingestion intake of food
Digestion breakdown of food
Absorption uptake of small molecules from the digestive system into the bloodstream
Food travels mouth-down esophagus, into the stomach, and through the small and large intestines before exiting the body
Mouth Ingestion begins: teeth grind, toungue move food around and compact into bolus, slivary glands secrete the saliva with salvary amylase
Stomach Swallowed food enters where it is stored and undergoes mechanical and chemical digestion. Lining liquifies the contents of the stomach by churning action
Sphincter ring shaped muscle which prevents food from backing into the esophagus...regulates passage of food to small intestine
Small intestine chemical digestion
Large Intestinve materical not digested completely in small intestine
salivary amylase breaks down smaller polysaccharides
parietal cells in stomach wall, kills bacteria
chief cell secrete pepsinogen
Pepsin breaks down proteins
Parapodia facilitates Gas Exchange in water
More oxygen Rich...Air or Water Air
Animals with simple Body plans can rely on________to obtain oxygen and eliminate metabolic wastes diffusion
More complex organisms with multiple cell layers cannot use diffusion because___________________! Diffusion occurs too slow to enable an efficient transfer of molecules over several layers.
Also reffered to as respiration Gas exchange
Warms and freshens the air as it enters the lungs The nose
trachea covered with cartilaginous rings, and serves as a passagway to the lungs
Bronchi branches from trachea and branches into smaller tubes called bronchioles
alveoli air sacs at the end of bronchioles
Alveoli are covered with_____ and serve as the site for_______ Capillaries and transferring oxygen to the blood
Mammal lungs operate as a negative pressure system
epiglottis flap of tissure that prevents food from entering the trachea
daphragm works with rib muscles to expand the lungs during inhalation, and during exhalation makes the lungs cavity smaller (forcing air out)
Center of Circulatory System Heart
Veins carry blood to the heart
arteries cary blood AWAY from the heart
Right Atrium deoxygenated blood enters the heart here
Right ventricle contractions send deoxigenated blood from the right atrium through here
Pumonary arteries contractions send deoxigenated blood from the right atrium TO here then to the lungs
Oxygenated blood enters the heart from the the lungs into the Left atrium
oxygenated blood is pumped from the left atrium into the left ventricle
oxygenated blood is pumped through here then off to tissues in the body Aorta
Superior Vena Cava and inferior vena cava deliver deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium of the heart
Main function of excretory system get rid of metabloic waste
contents of excretory system skin, lungs, liver, urogenital system
Skin's performance in excretory system remove water, salt urea, through sweat glands
Lungs function in excretory system excrete CO2 and H2O
Liver function in excretory system produce urea
Urogenital System function in excretory system filter, store, and remove wastes
Kidneys filter blood to produce urine
Travels down the ureter into the bladder filtrate from kidney
flitrate exits the body through the uretha
Many small filtration units that make up a kidney nephron
nephron consists of one long tubule an assosiated capillaries
Nervous system 2 main parts brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System sensory (input) and Motor (output)
Neuron components cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, terminal branches, synaptic branches
2 major components of the nervous system are central nervous system, peripher nervous system
central nervous system brain and spinal cord
perpheral nervouse system sensory and motor nerves
A neurons structure reflects it's structure
Neurons 3 major classes are sensory, interneurons, and motor
sensory recieve signals from environment. Sences light, pressure, presence of chemicals
interneurons link sensory and motor, sends impulses to different locations
motor convey messages from central nervous system to effectors
effectors the muscle that carries out messages
reflex any quick automatic response to a stimulus
Functions of Human Brain sensory interpretation, reflex actions, thought, coordination, memory, emotions, and linkage to other organ systems
3 major parts of the human brain cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum
medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain Parts of human brain stem
diencephalon thalamus and hypothalamus
thalamus and hypothalamus control hunger, thirst, sexual response, and pleasure links to the endocrine system
cerebellum responsible for coordination and control
cerebrum associated with intellect
lobes of cerebrum speech, senses, vision, hearing
limbic system primitive part of brain
5 major sensory receptors thermoreceptors, electoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors
cells that convert stimuli into a change sensory receptors
taxonomy catagorizing the world
species label of a particular type of organism
Carolus linneaus created current naming system
genus general term used to group living things
Linaean classification system kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
How many kingdoms are there? 5 (monera, protista, plants, animals, fungi)
Monera 1 celled prokaryotes
Protista 1 celled eukaryotes
plants multicellular organisms that are photosynthetic
Animals multicellular organisms take food in
Fungi muticellular organisms that absorb food
Photosynthesis process of conberting carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight into glucose adn oxygen
What plant cell organelle does photosynthesis occur in? chloroplast
3 stages to series of reactions that comprise photosynthesis absorption of sunlight, light reactions, and dark reactions
Chloroplasts double membrane organelles within certain
Stroma space inside the inner membrane c
thylakoids saxk of membranous discs in the stoma
granum (granna) stack(s) of thlakoids
Light reaction of photosynthesis occur where? thylakoid membranes
dark reactions of photosynthesis occur where? between the membranes (thylakoid space)
phosystems pigment containing complexes able to absorb energy from sunlight
Chlorophyll chemical compound within the photosystems that had the ability to store sunlight energy
Ultimate source of energy for photosynthesis SUNLIGHT
ATP hchemical reaction forming anoter energy when hydrogen idons exit through a protein in the thylkoid membrane
Microbes bacteria and viruses
alive bacteria
single celled living organisms Bacteria
prokaryotes Bacteria
Created by: Christinaboyd