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PNN152 Test 2-Nutri


Importance of Vitamin C (Water-soluble)important for formation of RBCs Production of collagen(tissue repair), metabolism of amino acids
Importance of Vitamin B Complex (Water Soluble)important for metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, enhances circulation
Importance of Vitamin A (fat soluble)important for epithelial tissue proliferation, immune system antigen
Importance of Vitamin D (fat soluble)important for bone and teeth development, enhances immunity
Importance of Vitamin E (fat Soluble)antioxidant (helps control "free radicals") keeps cells healthy
Importance of Vitamin K (fat soluble)important for blood clotting,bone formation and repair
Importance of calcium and phosphorus important for bones and teeth
Importance of copper important for hemoglobin formation
Importance of iron important for hemoglobin formation, synthesis of vitamines and antibodies(large amount)
Importance of iodine basic components of thyroid hormones
Importance of zinc maintains connective tissue integrity, assists with the formation of enzymes and insulin, boosts the immune response
Protein Function essential for almost every bodily function
Protein digestion the end product of protein digestion is amino acids, amino acids not used by the body are metabolized by the liver
Protein metabolism/nitrogen balance nitrogen is an end product of amino acid metabolism, refelcts the status of protein nutrition the body, when nitrogen intake=output a state of balance occurs
Protein negative balance not enough protein(nitrogen out take is more than intake) Muscle wasting, massive trauma, burns, malnutrition
Carbohydrates digestion digested in small intestine
carbohydrates metabolism liver converts excess carbohydrates into glycogen, glycogen level is controlled by insulin production
Processed CHOs(carbohydrates) cake, bread
Natural CHOs (carbohydrates) whole weat bread(will have more fiber)
Carbohydrates break down in this order glucose,starch, fiber
Fats(lipids) function cell membrade integrity, promotes absorption of fat-soluble vitamines, synthesis of vitamin D
Lipids: cholesterol used in the synthesis of steroid hormones, HDL: carries the cholesterol away form the arteries and back to the liver, removes exvess cholesterol from atherosclerotic plaques
Lipids: cholesterol LDL Cholesterol: major cholesterol carrier in the blood, excess is depositied on the walls of the arteries causing the formation of atherosclerosis plaques.
Importance of water vital to health and normal vell function,approimately 60% of the average healthy adult's weight,women and elderly have a lower percentage of body water, adipose tissue is essentially free of water, lean tissue contains a significant amount of water
Factors that affect nutrition: development people in rapid periods of growth require more nutrients
Factors that affect nutrition: gender men need more clories and protein, women need more iron, pregnant and lactating women have increased calorie and fluid needs
Hyperglycemia(elevated glucose level) polyphasia(frequent eating), Polydipsia(frequent thirst), Polyuria(frequent urination), malaise (cells not getting enough good energy), Late manifestations:rapid weak pulse, dry mucous membranes
Hypoglycemia(decreased glucose level) Early manifestations: hunger and nausea
Hypoglycemia(decreased glucose level) Late manifestations: pale cool skin, diaphoresis, shakiness, irritability, hypotension, slurred speech, unusual feeling, headache, inability to concentrate
Overnutrition: over weight Calorie intake in excess of daily requirements, BMI 25-29.9
Overnutrition: obesity BMI 30 or greater
Overnutrition: Morbid obesity obesity that interferes with breathing or mobility
Undernutrition: multiple causes lack of sufficient food, dysphagia, anorexia
Undernutrition: clinical manifestations marked weight loss, generalized weakness, delayed wound healing, increased susceptibility to infection
Blood Glucose labs levels normal range fasting: 70-115 postprandial: less than 120
Significance of results of blood glucose fasting: greater than 126 postprandial: greater than 200 may indicate diabetes mellitus
Protein/albumin: albumin accounts for 50% of the total serum protein, significance of results indicates prolonged protein depletion. nursing consideration:encourage increased protein intake
Protein/albumin: prealbumin signficance of results: "gold standard" for determining protein malnutrition, shorter lifespan than abbumin therefore more sensitive to short term protein dificiency. nursing consideration:less than 11 require aggressive nutritionalintervention
Lipids/cholesterol significance of results elevated total cholesterol/LDL. Decreased HDL: increased atherosclerotic plaque formation, increased risk for coronary heart disease.As LDL increase HDL decrease
Lipid/Cholesterol nursing considerations educate client on diet low in cholesterol, monitor liver function for clients taking medication to lower cholesterol (statins)
Hemoglobin A1c: measure the A1c components of glycohemoglobin saturation in RBCs used as a follow-up for clients with hyperglycemia, has been investigated as a screening test for diabetes. Nursing consideration educate client on signifance of results
Bedside blood glucose testing: purpose used as a monitoring tool, may be used for clients with diabetes to monitor glucose levels, may be used for clients who are not diabetic to monitor the bodys ability to adapt to increased amounts of glucose and or claories
Blood sugar sliding scale 150-200: 4 units regular insulin 201-250: 6 units regular insulin 251-300: 8 units regular insulin greater than 300: call physician
types of enteral feeding tubes: small bore ng tube inserted into the stomach or small intestine through nose(short term feeding)
nursing consideration for small bore ng tube placement checked with aspiration of stomach contents, ausculation, ph measure, ans s/s of distress
types of enteral feeding tubes: gastrostomy tube inserted into the stomach via surgery or endoscopy (PEG)(long term feeding)
nursing considerations of gastrostomy tube placement checked with aspiration of stomach contents. (less risk for aspiration)
types of enteral tubes: jejunostomy tube placed in small intestine may be placed through a gastrostomy tube(long term feeding)
nursing considerations of jejunostomy tube placement checked with aspiration of small intestine contents
formula for adminstering enteral feeding formula based on clients nutritional needs, disease specific formulas available. liquid feeding formulas are available commercially or may be mixed by dietary
Nursing care for a client with an open system (enteral feeding) no more than 8-12 hours of feeding should hang at one time, bag and tubing needs to be changed every 24 hours
nursing care for a client with a closed system (enteral feeding) feeding is in a prefilled container, can hang for 48hours if sterile technique is used to spike the container
nursing care responsibility for a client with TPN monitor weight, monitor I&O, monitor labs clucose and electrolytes, monitor infusion, monitor for systemic complications and IV site complications.
Created by: ajlett