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Science prac.


law a rule that describes the behavior of something in nature
technology the process of using scientific discoveries for practical purposes
Italians one of the first cultures to develop instruments to study the weather
not enough data can cause an experiment to be inaccurate
plasma the most common state of matter in the universe
element is a substance that contains only one type of atom
atoms the smallest particle htat makes up matter
atomic number is the number of protons of an atom
valence electrons that are shared
nucleus contains both protons and neutrons
hydrogen bonds have polar molecules
cleavage mineral property that explains why some minerals break along smooth, flat surfaces
vein minerals forms along faults
oxygen the most abundant element in the crust
Friedrich Mohs the mineral hardness chart is named for
arrangement of its atoms determines wether a mineral has cleavage or fracture
streak measures the color of a mineral's powder
oxygen and silicon the two most common elements in minerals
compaction process in which layer upon layer of sediment build up, exerting pressure on the lower layer of sediment
gneiss foliated rock, banding
igneous rocks are classified by how they are formed
intermediate rocks have mineral compositions between felsic and mafic rocks
felsic rocks light colored rocks, igneous rocks, rocks that have a high concentration of silica
rock is a mixture
non-foliated rocks are metamorphic but do not exhibit layering
rock removal rock may be carried away by the wind or water, but it is never lost
sedimentary rocks form when sediment is pressed together, form from exisiting rocks, often form in layers
cementation when minerals act like glue to hold sediments together
extrusive rocks have small mineral grains and are formed on top of Earth's surface
metamorphic rock foliated texture that has mineral grains that have lined up in parallel lines
igneous rocks are the most commonly found rocks on Earth and are formed from cooled magma
mafic rocks contain large amounts of iron and magnesium
lines of latitude measure distance north and south of the equator
lines of longitude measure distance east and west of the prime meridian
folded mountain Mountains that form rock layers that fold up due to pressure in the crust are called folded mountains
conic projections used to make maps of smaller areas
geologic maps depict cross sections of rock
mercator projections drawn with lines of longitude parallel to each other
contour lines connect points of equal elevation
tilting and faulting produce majestic peaks and steep slopes
upwarped have sharp peaks and ridges, just like the Adirondacks of New York
fault-block produced by the tilting of one block and the downward movement of the other
chemical weathering occurs more rapidly in warm, wet climates
mechanical weathering occurs more in cold climates
horizon each layer of a soil profile
humus decayed organic material turns into a dark-colored material
carbonic acid when water mixes with carbon dioxide in the air
U-shaped type of valleys are made by valley glaciers
loess sediment has the smallest grain
mass movement involves any large amount of material moved by erosional forces; slumps, creeps, rockfalls, rock slides, and mudflows
decomposers are organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms
producers living things which take the non living matter from the environment, such as minerals and gases and uses them to support life
mitochondrion normal structures responsible for energy production in cells "powerhouse of the cell"
lyosome particle in the cytoplasm of cells containing a number of digestive enzymes capable of breaking down most of the constituents of living matter
vacuole fluid-filled cavity within the cytoplasm of a cell, surrounded by a membrane that usually encloses food, water, or air
carbohydrates biological compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is an important source of food and energy
lipids biological compound that is not soluble in water; a fat.
DNA a nucleic acid molecule in the form of a twisted double strand double helix that is the major component of chromosomes and carries genetic information
pollination transfer of pollen from the male reproductive organ (stamen or staminate cone) to the female reproductive organ (pistil or pistillate cone) of the same or of another flower or cone
photosynthesis a process by which green plants and other organisms turn carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen, using light energy trapped by chlorophyll
phototropism the tendency of an organism to grow toward or away from a source of light
germination the process in which a plant or fungus emerges from a seed or spore, respectively, and begins growth
precipitation condensed water vapor that falls to the Earth's surface
transpiration the release of water vapor from plants and soil into the air
condensation the transformation of water vapor to liquid water droplets in the air, creating clouds and fog
evaporation the transformation of water from liquid to gas phases as it moves from the ground or bodies of water into the overlying atmosphere
runoff the variety of ways by which water moves across the land
inflitration the flow of water from the ground surface into the ground
advection the movement of water — in solid, liquid, or vapor states — through the atmosphere
mantle a highly viscous layer between the crust and the outer core
crust composed of a great variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks
inner core is a primarily solid ball and consists of an iron–nickel alloy, and may have a temperature similar to the Sun's surface
outer core a liquid layer about 2,266 kilometers thick composed of iron and nickel
Exosphere is the last layer before outer space and contains the lightest gases, mainly hydrogen, with some helium, carbon dioxide, and atomic oxygen near the exobase
Thermosphere is the biggest of all the layers within this layer, ultraviolet radiation causes ionization where Auroras also occur
Mesosphere the coldest naturally occurring place on Earth, referred to as the "middle atmosphere," contains strong winds and the most poorly understood part of the atmosphere
Stratosphere it is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down and includes the ozone layer, which absorbs and scatters solar ultraviolet radiation
Troposphere day-to-day weather occurs
Mercury the planet closest to the sun, bright when viewed from Earth, similar in appearance to the Moon
Venus it is the brightest natural object in the night sky, with an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, second planet from the Sun
Mars often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance, has two moons, fourth planet from the Sun
Jupiter the largest planet within the Solar System, has at least 64 moons, the fifth planet from the Sun
Saturn has a ring system consisting mostly of ice particles with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust, sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet, has Sixty-two known moons
Uranus it is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, seventh planet from the Sun, virtually featureless planet
Neptune primarily composed of ices and rock, visible weather patterns, eighth and farthest planet from the Sun
terrestrial planets composed primarily of silicate rocks and/or metals; includes Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
jovian planets a gas giant, is a large planet that is not primarily composed of rock or other solid matter, includes Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
diffraction the bending or spreading out of waves, e.g. of sound or light, as they pass around the edge of an obstacle or through a narrow aperture
resonance reinforcement and prolongation of a sound or musical tone by reflection or by sympathetic vibration of other bodies
interference is the phenomenon in which two waves superpose each other to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude
refraction 1.the bending of a ray or wave of light, heat, or sound as it passes obliquely from one medium to another of different density, in which its speed is different, or through layers of different density in the same medium
chemical reactions is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another
radiant energy comes from electromagnetic waves, including microwaves, X-rays and light
electrons are most directly involved in the formation of chemical bonds
Created by: shellyba