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Vitamins & Minerals

What are the two forms of Vitamin A? Retinol and Beta-carotine
What are the fat-soluble vitamins? Vitamins A,D,E,K
What are the water-soluble vitamins? B complex and C
What does a provitamin require? It requires conversion in the body to be in a complete state.
What are the main functions of Vitamin A? Vision, maintenance of a healthy epithelium, skeletal and tooth development, normal cellular proliferation
What is carotenemia? When the skin become yellow
What are some symptoms of hypervitaminosis A? Headaches, blurred vision, joint and bone pain, dry skin and poor appetite
Where can you find Vitamin A? Yellow vegetables, peaches, cantaloupe, fish oils, fortified milk and dairy products
Where can you find Vitamin D? Milk, margarine, cereals, fish and sunlight
What are the main functiosn of Vitamin D? Absorption and renal function of calcium and mobilization of calcium & phosphorus from the bone
Vitamin D deficiency leads to: Rickets, Poor dental health, Tetany and Osteomalacia
Vitamin A deficiency leads to: Blindness, Skin changes, inadequate tooth and bone development and degeneration of cells leading to infection
What is the role of Vitamin E? An antioxidant, which assists in maintaining integrity of cellular membranes
Vitamin E deficiency leads to: Destruction of red blood cells, poor reflexes and impaired neuromuscular functioning
Where can you find Vitamin E? Vegetable oils, soy beans, corn and peanuts
What is the function of Vitamin K? Formation of prothrombin and other clotting factors
Where can you find Vitamin K? Green leafy vegetables, cabbage, cauliflower, egg yolk and liver
Vitamin K deficiency leads to: Increased tendency for hemorrhage
What are B-1's (thiamine) functions? Carbohydrate metabolism and adequate nerve functioning
B-1 Thiamine deficiency leads to: Poor appetite, mental depression, fatigue, constipation, neuritis, and beriberi
Where can you find B-1 Thiamine? Organ meats, port, whoel and enriched grain, nuts, potatoes, eggs and milk
The function of B-2 (riboflavin) is: Protein and carbohydrate metabolism and promotes healthy skin and vision
B-2 (riboflavin) deficiency leads to: Cracking and fissures of side of mouth and poor vision
Where can you find B-2 (riboflavin)? Milk, dairy, eggs, organ meats, green leafy vegetables
The functions of B-3 (Niacin) are: Glycogen metabolism, tissue regeneration and fat synthesis
B-3 (niacin) deficiency leads to: Pellagra (fatigue, headache, loss of appetite, weight loss, diarrhea, neurologic degeneration and dermatitis)
Where can you find B-3 (niacin)? Kidney, liver, poultry, lean meat, fish, yeast, peanut buter, dried peas and beans
The functions of B-6 (pyridoxine) are: amino acid metabolism, blood formation and maintenance of nervous tissue
Deficiency of B-6 (Pyridoxine) leads to: Dermatitis, convulsions and anemia
Where can you find B-6 (Pyridoxine)? Chicken, fish, wheat germ, organ meats, egg yolk, whole grains, potatoes and bananas
What are the main functions of B-12? Formation of healthy RBD and absorption
B-12 deficiency leads to: Pernicious anemia
What are the symptoms of pernicious anemia? Pallor, dypsnea, weakness, fatigue and palpitations
Where can you find B-12? Liver, kidney, shrimp, eggs, shellfish, meats, milk and cheese
What are the FOUR functions of Vitamin C? Protects against infection, provides adequate wound healing, promotes iron absorption and collagen formation
Deficiency in Vitamin C can elad to: Poor wound healing, join pain, anemia, increased susceptibility to infection and scurvy
Where can you find Vitamin C? Citrus fruits, green peppers, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli and sweet and white potatoes
What is the most abunant mineral in the body? Calcium
What is calcium necessary for? Bone and tooth formation, contractions/relaxation of muscles, nerve impulse transmission and conversion of prothrombin to thrombni
Which vitamin is essential to Calcium regulation? Vitamin D
Where can you find calcium? Dairy products, green leafy vegetables and seafood
Calcium deficiency leads to: stunted growth, rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and tetany
What are essential for calcium absorption? Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, ascorbic acid, lactose and physical activity
Where is iron mostly found in the body? In hemoglobin
Iron's major function is: Oxygen transport
Which vitamin enhances the absoption of iron? Vitamin C
Iron deficiency leads to: Anemia
Which foods contain iron? Liver, lean meats, dried beans, fortified cereals
Where is sodium primarily found in the body? In the extra cellular fluid
What are the functions of sodium? Maintenance of fluid and acid-base balance
How much percent of sodium intake is from natural sources? 10%
How much percent of sodium intake is from discretionary salt addition? 15%
How much percent of sodium intake is from processed foods? 75%
Where is potassium primarily found in the body? In the intracellular fluid
What are the functions of postassium? Protein synthsis, fluid balance and regulation of muscle contraction
Potassium deficiency can lead to: Vomiting, diarrhea, non-potassium sparing diuretics and ketoacidosis
What is hypokalemia? Low potassium
What is hyperkalemia? High Potassium
Where can you find potassium? Yellow fruits (bananas, cantaloupe, oranges) and some vegetables
What is water's main function? Maintenance of cell function
What signals the need for water? Thirst
What are the two types of carbohydrates? Simple and Complex
What are carbohydrates composted of? Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
What are the two types of simple sugars? Monosaccharides and disaccharides
What are some examples of simple carbohydrates? Sugars, honey, fruit and milk
What are some complex carbohydrates? Bread, pasta, rice and potatoes
Which three categories supplies the body with energy? Carbohydrates, proteins and fats
Which four categories helps to regular body processes? Vitamins, minerals, trace elements and water
What is the main function of carbohydrates? Providing energy
Created by: jpalao
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