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Elimination

Bowel and Urinary

QuestionAnswer
When should you give diuretics? In the day time
What physical assessments should you do when it comes to BOWEL elimination? Inspection, Percussion, Palpation
What should you INSPECT for in urinary elimination? No bladder distention
What should you PERCUSS for in urinary elimination? Hollow sound
What should you PALPATE for in urinary elimination? No bladder at all! (If bladder is present, it is distended)
Cytoscopy Direct visual in bladder
Renal biopsy evaluates for tumors and cancer
Anuria Failure to urinate
Proteinuria Protein the urine
Diuresis Increased urine production
Dysuria Painful urination
Micturation Urination
Nocturia Excessive urination at night
Oliguria Producing small amounts of urine
Urinary retention Holding urine the in the bladder
Polyuria Too much urine
Urinary incontinence No control of urine flow
Constipation difficult passage of hard dry stools
Impaction Collection of hardened feces, wedged in the rectum
Diarrhea Liquid, unformed feces
Incontinence Inability to control passage of feces & gas
Flatulence Gas in the lumen
Distention Stretched beyond normal dimensions
Hemorrhoids dilated, engorged veins in the lining of the rectum
What should you do physical assessment when it comes to URINARY elimination? Inspection, Auscultation, Percussion, Palpation, Measurement of Ab Girth and Perirectal Examination
What should you inspect in bowel elimination? Symmetrical abdomen and contour should be convex or flat
What should you ausculate in bowel elimination? Bowel sounds every 5-30 seconds in all quads
What should you percuss in bowel elimination? hollow, tympany sounds in LUQ (stomach)
What should you palpate in bowel elimination? soft abdomen
T/F you should listen to the abdomen before percussing TRUE ! The latter manuevers may alter the frequency of bowel sounds
What are normal bowel sounds? Clicks and gurgles
Borborygmi loud, prolonged gurgles of hyper peristalsis (STOMACH GROWLING)
Paralytic ileus absence of BS greater than 72 hours
T/F - To detect abnormal masses, you should massage abdomen in a circluar motion True
Light palpation is to look for: normal skin temp and moisture
Deep palpation is to look for: location & size of organs and to detect masses
Percussion in the abdomen determines: Whether an organ is air filled, fluid filled or solid
Three main intervention for constipation: Ensure adequate fluid intake, high fiber foods and use of laxatives
Bulk laxative Metamucil attract water into the large intestines (** needs LARGE amounts of water!!)
Stool softeners Allows water to enter the stool easily
Saline attract and retain water in the intestinal lumen (which increases pressure and therefore softens stools)
Stimulant direct stimulation of the intestine mucosa, altering water and electrolyte secretion
Hypokalemia Low levels of potassium
** What should you keep in mind when making intervention for diarrhea? Maintaining skin integrity and fluid status !! *
Absorbents absorbs excess fluids (peptol bismal)
Bulk Forming Agents Psyllium soaks up water in the colon, helping to firm stool
Opiates (Codeine) Increases H2O and electrolyte absorption
Synthetic Agents (Immodium) Decrease intestinal motility
Antispasmodics (Atrophine) Decreases intestinal motility
Fecal incontinence can cause: perineal irritation
What is the highest priority in intervention for fecal incontinence? Maintaining skin integrity
What is a dietary intervention for constipation? Increased intake of high fiber foods
What are some dietary intervention for diarrhea? Avoid spicy foods or laxative type foods, intake LOW fiber foods and replace lost fluids
Dietary interventions for flatulence include: Avoid gas forming foods - beans, cabbage, onions, cauliflower and beer
Stoma portion of intestine brought through the abdominal wall
Colostomy opening created using a portion of the large intestine
Ileostomy Opening created using the ileum (small intestine)
Enema Liquid or gas is injected into the rectum
Risk factors for colon cancer: Age over 50 Family history Hx of inflammatory bowel diseases Living in an urban area Diet (high/low fiber intake)
Warning signs of colon cancer: Changes in bowel habits and rectal bleeding
Defecation reflex normal response to bowel movement
Flatus Gas in or from the stomach
Gastric lavage Washing out the stomach with sterile water
Gavage Tube feeding
Gulac Component to determine presence of occult blood
Meconium Earliest stools of an infant
Ostomate Person with an ostomy
Peristalsis Involuntary constriction and relaxation of digestive tract muscles
Sigmoidscopy Exam of the colon in search for polyps
Polyps Abnormal tissue growth
Suppository Drug delivery system into the rectum
Created by: jpalao