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Microbial Metabolism

MIC 205 Exam 3

Define metabolism. the sum of all chemical reactions, both anabolic and catabolic, within an organism
What is the difference between catabolism and anabolism? catabolism breaks down substances and produces energy; anabolism builds up substances and uses energy
Which pathway produces energy? catabolism
Which pathway uses energy? anabolism
In what form is this energy stored? bonds of new compound
Which pathway produces water as a by-product? anabolism
Which pathway requires water for biochemical reactions to occur? catabolism
What is an enzyme? Proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy
What is a catalyst? substance that changes the rate of reaction but does not get used up in reaction
Describe the parts of an enzyme. apoenzyme (protein portion; cofactor (inorganic ions) or coenzyme
Name four factors that influence the action of enzymes. temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and inhibitors
What is a competitive enzyme inhibition? molecule whose shape and structure are similar to the enzyme’s normal substrate; fills the active sit on enzyme
What is non-competitive inhibition? molecule binds to an enzyme allosterically and changes the enzyme shape so the active sit is not the same
Describe how feedback inhibition conserves energy for a cell. saves energy by preventing cells from making something they don’t need
What are oxidation/reduction reactions? any metabolic reaction involving the transfer of electrons from an electron donor to an electron acceptor
When a molecule is oxidized, what has happened to that molecule? gives electrons and becomes more positively charged
What happens to a molecule when it is reduced? accepts electrons; charge is “reduced” due to gain of electrons—becomes more negative
What three macromolecules do microbes routinely metabolize? carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
Why do organisms use biochemical pathways to metabolize products? to produce energy (ATP)
Which molecule do most microbes metabolize most frequently? glucose
Name two ways that microorganisms produce energy from glucose. respiration and fermentation
What are the three biochemical pathways of respiration? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and Electron Transport Chain
What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? aerobic has a final electron acceptor of O; anaerobic has an inorganic molecule that is not O as its final electron acceptor (such as nitrate, sulfate, etc.)
NAD+ and FAD are electron/proton carriers. Where do they take their hydrogens when they are reduced during glycolysis and the Krebs cycle? to the ETC
What is chemiosmosis? process of releasing electrons from carrier molecules in the ETC to produce energy
What is the proton motive force? a potential energy source caused from hydrogen ions collecting as they pass the membrane
What is produced in the Electron Transport Chain? ATP
Where does glycolysis take place in eukaryotes and prokaryotes? cytosol of both
Where is the Krebs Cycle located in eukaryotes? In prokaryotes? cytosol of prokaryotes and mitochondria of eukaryotes
Where is the Electron Transport Chain located in eukaryotes and prokaryotes? eukaryotes—mitochondrial membrane; prokaryotes—plasma membrane
Describe how cells catabolize proteins and fats. Proteins are catabolized to AA that enter glycolysis; fats are catabolized to either fatty acids/glycerol, fatty acids are converted to acetyl-coA & enter the Krebs Cycle, & glycerol is converted to pyruvic acid that enter the Krebs Cycle/fermentation
If there is no oxygen available or a microorganism does not utilize oxygen but chooses to ferment a substrate, name some products that could serve as the final electron/proton acceptors. nitrate, sulfate, etc.
Which pathway – respiration or fermentation – produces the most ATP? respiration
What do bacteria do with the products formed by the anabolism of carbohydrates? used for energy, construction of bacterial cell wall, nucleic acids, capsules, etc.
By the anabolism of fats and proteins? Give examples. fats are used for membrane construction, pigments, energy storage, cell wall construction; proteins are used to make cell walls, toxins, membranes, etc. Carbon and nitrogen from AA used to make nucleic acids
What is an amphibolic pathway? metabolic pathway that can be used for both catabolism and anabolism
What kinds of organisms are capable of photosynthesis? some bacteria, algae, green plants, and a few protozoa
Where do photosynthetic organisms get their energy to produce sugar from the carbons in carbon dioxide? light energy
What is produced in photophosphorylation? ATP
What is produced in the Calvin Benson cycle? glucose
Created by: slarmentrout