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Renal

BC3 - Renal Patho info Adult 1 Mr. Justice (Andrea,Wendy,Tonya)

QuestionAnswer
Pale Urine would have a low specific gravity
Concentrated Urine would have a high specific gravity
Urine Protein 0-18mg/dl
Urine pH 4.0-8.0
RBC 0-4 hpf
WBC 0-5 hpf
Elevated BUN indicates Kidney problems
Serum BUN 8-25 mg/dl
Serum Creatinine 0.6-1.5
Potassium 3.5-5.5mEq/L
Characteristics of normal urine clear, straw-amber in color, minimal odor
If urine smells chemically think meds
If urine smells like ammonia too much urea - possible liver issues
If urine smells foul think infection
If there is glucose present in urine sugar is too high
If ketones are present in urine proteins are breaking down
GFR is normally 125 ml/min
Normal urinary output should be no less than 30cc/hr
If mild renal impairment exists, urinary output should be no less than 20cc/hr
Where do loop diuretics work in the Loop of Henle
Proximal tubule secretes creatinine & hydrogen
Ascending Loop of Henle reabsorbs Na & Cl
The descending Loop of Henle reabsorbs water
Loop Diuretics are also Non-potassium sparing
Loop Diuretics block the reabsorption of Na, Cl, Water, and increase secretion of K
Distal tubule secrets K, Ammonia, H
parathyroid = calcium reuptake
Thiazide Diuretics are not K sparing
Where do thiazide diuretics work distal tubule
What do Thiazide diuretics block Na reabsorption
ACE Inhibitors act on the kidneys not the heart
Angiotensin II receptors block the receptor sites
Renin-Angiotensin - Aldosterone System body's regulatory method for BP
Aldosterone effects occur in the distal tubule by Na reabsorbtion and exchanged for K
Renin is important for regulating BP
Erythropoietin production of blood
Erythropoietin is released in response to hypoxia or decreased renal blood flow
Vit D deficiency r/t renal failure manifested by inability to absorb calcium from the GI tract; creates imbalance r/t phosphate
Characteristics of calcium oxalate stones small, often possible to get trapped in ureter; more frequent in men than women
Predisposing factors of calcium oxalate stones idiopathic hypercalciuria, jyperoxaluria, independent of urinary pH, family history
Characteristics of calcium phosphate stones Mixed stones (typically), with struvite or oxalate stones
Predisposing factors of calcium phosphate stones Alkaline urine, primary hyperparathyroidism
Characteristics of struvite stones Three to four times as common in women than men, always in assoc with UTI's, large staghorn type (usually)
Predisposing factors of struvite stones UTI's
Characteristics of Uric acid stones Predominant in men, high incidence in Jewish men
Characteristics of cystine stones genetic autosomal recessive defect, defective absorption of cystine in GI tract and kidney, causing stone formation
Predisposing factors of cystine stones acid urine
Created by: okrecota