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Unit 1 Chapter 6

MMS Science 8 Earthquakes

TermDefinition
Plate A large section of Earth's crust and rigid upper mantle that moves around on the asthenosphere.
Fault The surface along which rocks move when they pass their elastic limit and break.
Earthquake The vibrations produced when rocks break along a fault.
Normal fault A break in rock caused by tension forces, where rock above the fault surface moves down relative to the rock below the fault surface.
Reverse fault A break in rock caused by compressive forces, where rock above the fault surface moves upward relative to the rock below the fault surface.
Strike-slip fault A break in rock caused by shear forces, where rocks move past each other without much vertical movement.
Wave A rhythmic movement that carries energy through matter and space.
Seismic wave A wave generated by an earthquake.
Focus In an earthquake, it's the point below Earth's surface where energy is released in the form of seismic waves.
Primary wave A seismic wave that moves rock particles back-and-forth in the same direction that the wave travels.
Secondary wave A seismic wave that moves rock particles at right angles to the direction of the wave.
Surface wave A seismic wave that moves rock particles up-and-down in a backward rolling motion and side-to-side in a swaying motion.
Epicenter The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus.
Seismograph An instrument used to register earthquake waves and record the time that each arrived.
Crest The highest point of a wave.
Magnitude The measure of the energy released during an earthquake.
Liquifaction This occurs when wet soil acts more like a liquid during an earthquake.
Tsunami A seismic sea wave that begins over an earthquake focus and can be highly destructive when it crashes on shore.
Folded mountain Mountain formed when horizontal rock layers are squeezed from opposite sides, causing them to buckle.
Upwarped mountain Mountain formed when blocks of Earth's crust are pushed up by forces inside Earth.
Fault-block mountain Mountain formed from huge, tilted blocks of rock that are separated from surrounding rocks by faults.
Volcanic mountain Mountain formed when molten material reaches Earth's surface through a weak crustal area and piles up into a cone-shaped structure.
Created by: rwaters