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Med Term Chp 11


Urology study of the urinary system
Urologist a specialist in urology
Nephrology study of the structure, function, and diseases of the kidneys
Nephrologist a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys
Urinary system consisting of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, removes wastes from the blood and helps to maintain water and electrolyte balance
Reabsorption process in the kidney that puts useful substances (water, glucose, amino acids) back into the blood
Nephrotic Syndrome group of symptoms characterized by chronic loss of protein in the urine, leads to depletions of body protein, especially albumin. (a syndrome characterized by edema and large amounts of protein in the urine and usually increased blood cholesterol)
Floating Kidney The condition of a downward displacement of a kidney; also known as nephroptosis
Nephron functional unit of the kidney; produce urine by filtration, reabsorption and secretion; made up of a glomerulus, collecting tubule & Bowman's Capsule.
ARF acute renal failure
BNO Bladder neck obstruction
BPH Benign prostatic hyperplasia; benign prostatic hypertrophy
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CRF chronic renal failure
CT computed tomography
cysto cystoscopy
DRE digital rectal examination
ED erectile dysfunction
ESRD end-stage renal disease
ESWL extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy
EU excretory urography
IVP intravenous pyelogram; intravenous pyelography
IVU intravenous urogram; intravenous urography
KUB kidney, ureter, bladder
PKD polycystic kidney disease
PSA prostate-specific antigen
RP retrograde pyelography
TURP transurethral resection of the prostate
UA urinalysis
US ultrasonography, ultrasound
UTI urinary tract infection
VCUG voiding cystourethrogram; voiding cystourethrography
azoturia elevated and excessive levels of nitrogen substrates and urea in the urine
diuresis increased formation and secretion of urine
dysuria painful or difficult urination
end-stage renal disease (ESRD) a severe stage of chronic renal failure that requires life-sustaining treatment with either dialysis or a kidney transplant. BUN may be as high as 150 to 250 mg/dL.
enuresis inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
hypospadias an abnormal condition in males in which the urethra opens on the under surface of the penis
interstitial nephritis condition assiciated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue which results in destruction of nephrons and severe impairment in renal function
renal hypertension high blood pressure resulting from kidney disease
uremia excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood as a result of kidney failure
Wilms tumor rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood--a high BUN indicates the kidney's inability to excrete urea
computed tomography (CT) a scanning technique using multiple x-rays to construct three-dimensional images
Kidney, ureter, bladder (KUB) Radiographic examination to determine the location, size, shape, and malformation of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder KUB radiography may also detect stones and calcified areas.
pyelography Radiographic study of the kidney, ureters, and usually the bladder after injection of a contrast agent
intravenous pyelography (IVP) radiographic imaging in which a conctrast medium in injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization of the entire urinary tract. produces a pyelogram or urogram
retrograde pyelography (RP) RP. Radiographic imaging in which a contrast medium is introduced through a cystoscope directly into the bladder and ureters using small-caliber catheters
renal scan Nuclear medicine imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape through measurement of a radioactive substance that is injected intravenously and concentrates in the kidney
urinalysis the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine and its components
voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) radiography of the bladder an urethra after the introduction of a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine
catheterization insertion of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or remove fluid, most commonly, through the urethra into the bladder to withdraw urine
dialysis filtering process used to clease blood of high concentrations of metabloic waste products, draw off excess fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys fail to function properly
hemodialysis method of removing impurities by pumping the patient's blood through a dialyzer, the specialized filter of the artificial kidney machine (hemodialyzer)
peritoneal dialysis Method of removing impurities using the peritoneum as the filter; catheter insertion in the peritoneal cavity is required to deliver cleansing fluid (dialysate) that is washed in and out in cycles
renal transplant surgical implantation of a donor kidney to replace a non functioning kidney
asymptomatic without symptoms
auscultation listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)
impotence inability to achieve or maintain an erection
palpable capable of being touched or felt
percussion tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes
cyst/o, vesic/o bladder
glomerul/o glomerulus
nephr/o, ren/o kidney
aden/o gland
carcin/o cancer
enter/o interstine (usually small)
pyel/o renal pelvis
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
erythr/o red
gastr/o stomach
hemat/o blood
hepat/o liver
lith/o stone
noct/o night
olig/o scanty
py/o pus
rect/o rectum
scler/o hardening; sclera
ur/o, urin/o urine
ven/o vein
-ectomy excision, removal
-pexy fixation
-plasty surgical repair
-rraphy suture
-stomy forming an opening
-tome instrument to cut
-tomy incision
-tripsy crushing
-algia, -dynia pain
-cele hernia, swelling
-cyte cell
-logy study of
-megaly enlargement
-oma tumor
-ectasis dialation, expansion
-edema swelling
-emesis vomiting
-grade to go
-gram record, writing
-graphy process of recording
-iasis abnormal condition
-itis inflammation
-lith stone, calculus
-logist specialist in the study of
-osis abnormal condition
-pathy disease
-pepsia digestion
-phagia swallowing, eating
-phobia fear
-ptosis prolapse, downward displacement
-rrhea discharge, flow
-scope instrument for examining
-scopy visual examination
-uria urine
-al, -ic, -ous pertaining to
-ia condition
-ist specialist
a-, an- without, not
dys- bad; painful; difficult
in- in, not
Intra- in, within
poly- many, much
retro- backward, behind
supra- above, excessive, superior
malignant tending to cause death; highly injurious; aggressively malevolent; Ex. malignant tumor
nephrons one of a million tiny filtered structures found in the kidneys that removes wastes from blood and produces urine.
benign not dangerous to health
bilateral pertaining to both sides
cholelithiasis the formation of gallstones
cystocele hernia of the urinary bladder
diuretics Drugs that eliminate fluid by increasing urine output by the kidneys
edema swelling caused by excess fluid in the body tissues
hematuria the presence of blood in the urine
nephrolithotomy incision into the kidney for the removal of stones
oliguria production of an abnormally small amount of urine
polyuria excessive urination
ureteropyeloplasty surgical repair of ureter and renal pelvis
urinary incontinence inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
Created by: mkduff