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Soils (Envirothon)

Flashcards for the Envirothon Competition

the binding and arrangement of soil particles (sand, silt, clay) into secondary aggregates soil structure
found in topsoil horizons, usually allows for rapid infiltration of water. granular structure
found in subsoils, Water moves around the blocks or “peds” blocky structure
may inhibit root penetration, Water movement is slow in platy horizons platy structure
found in subsoil horizons. prismatic structure
parent materials of georgia soil eolian, alluvium, marine sediments, colluvium, residuum, organic deposits
A natural, three-dimensional, body at the earth’s surface, which is capable of supporting plant life soil
That science dealing with soils as a natural resource on the surface of the earth soil science
The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay particles in a mass of soil soil texture
The capacity of soils to hold water available for use by most plants. available water capacity
The depth that roots can penetrate through a soil down to a root restrictive layer effective rooting depth
The wearing away of the land surface by wate water erosion
The erosion process whereby water accumulates and often recurs in narrow channels and, over short periods, removes the soil from this narrow area to considerable depths, often defined for agricultural land in terms of channels too deep to till. gully erosion
An erosion process on sloping fields in which numerous and randomly occurring small channels of only several inches in depth are formed; occurs mainly on recently cultivated soils. rill erosion
The removal of a relatively uniform, thin layer of soil from the land surface by rainfall and largely unchanneled surface runoff (sheet flow). sheet erosion
A layer of soil, approximately parallel to the surface, having distinct characteristics produced by soil-forming processes. soil horizon
Soils that are wet long enough to periodically produce anaerobic conditions, thereby influencing the growth of plants. hydric soils
Material, such as sand, silt, or clay, deposited on land by streams alluvium
Unconsolidated, unsorted earth material being transported or deposited on side slopes and/or at the base of slopes by mass movement colluvium
Earth material transported and deposited by the wind. eolian
These sediments settled out of the sea and commonly were reworked by currents and tides, later becoming exposed. marine sediments
Accumulated organic debris in varying stages of decomposition. organic deposits
Unconsolidated, weathered, or partly weathered mineral material that accumulates by disintegration of bedrock in place. residuum
A cross-sectional view of a soil. soil profile
That portion of precipitation or irrigation on an area which does not infiltrate, but instead is discharged from the area. runoff
Created by: ayeestephy